Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Pediatric Hydrops Fetalis Follow-up

  • Author: Ashraf H Hamdan, MD, MBBCh, MSc, MRCP; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD  more...
Updated: Jan 09, 2014

Further Inpatient Care

Note the following:

  • If the precipitating cause was profound anemia, red cell survival may remain reduced in patients with isoimmune hemolytic anemia, and red cell production may be impaired in the fetus or newborn who has received multiple red cell transfusions.
  • If the cause of hydrops fetalis was a treatable infection, assurance of total eradication of the offending agent is obviously necessary.
  • In situations in which multiple anomalies and/or chromosomal abnormalities are present, family counseling is recommended.
  • Follow-up measures targeted toward the specific pathophysiologic disturbances present in individual cases may be required (eg, any baby who has experienced a compromised perinatal period).
  • Despite the profound compromise in perfusion and fetal function of multiple organ systems in the fetus with hydrops, the limited follow-up data that are currently available provide an unexpectedly optimistic outlook for babies who survive fetal hydrops.
Contributor Information and Disclosures

Ashraf H Hamdan, MD, MBBCh, MSc, MRCP Clinical Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Neonatologist, Pediatrix Medical Group of Nashville

Ashraf H Hamdan, MD, MBBCh, MSc, MRCP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Arun K Pramanik, MD, MBBS Professor of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Arun K Pramanik, MD, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Thoracic Society, National Perinatal Association, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynecology, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Ted Rosenkrantz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Pediatric Society, Eastern Society for Pediatric Research, American Medical Association, Connecticut State Medical Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

David N Sheftel, MD, MD Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science

David N Sheftel, MD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


The authors and editors of Medscape Drugs & Diseases gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, George Cassady, MD, to the development and writing of this article.

  1. Bellini C, Hennekam RC. Non-immune hydrops fetalis: a short review of etiology and pathophysiology. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Mar. 158A(3):597-605. [Medline].

  2. Pasman SA, Meerman RH, Vandenbussche FP, Oepkes D. Hypoalbuminemia: a cause of fetal hydrops?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr. 194(4):972-5. [Medline].

  3. Blair DK, Vander Straten MC, Gest AL. Hydrops in fetal sheep from rapid induction of anemia. Pediatr Res. 1994 May. 35(5):560-4. [Medline].

  4. Shinbane JS, Wood MA, Jensen DN, et al. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: a review of animal models and clinical studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997 Mar 15. 29(4):709-15. [Medline].

  5. Kitsirisakul B, Steger HF, Sanguansermsri T. Frequency of alpha-thalassemia-1 of the Southeast Asian-type among pregnant women in northern Thailand determined by PCR technique. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996 Jun. 27(2):362-3. [Medline].

  6. Desilets V, Audibert F. Investigation and management of non-immune fetal hydrops. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013 Oct. 35(10):923-38. [Medline].

  7. Huang HR, Tsay PK, Chiang MC, Lien R, Chou YH. Prognostic factors and clinical features in liveborn neonates with hydrops fetalis. Am J Perinatol. 2007 Jan. 24(1):33-8. [Medline].

  8. Takci S, Gharibzadeh M, Yurdakok M, Ozyuncu O, Korkmaz A, Akcoren Z, et al. Etiology and Outcome of Hydrops Fetalis: Report of 62 Cases. Pediatr Neonatol. 2013 Oct 1. [Medline].

  9. Abrams ME, Meredith KS, Kinnard P, Clark RH. Hydrops fetalis: a retrospective review of cases reported to a large national database and identification of risk factors associated with death. Pediatrics. 2007 Jul. 120(1):84-9. [Medline].

  10. Lin SM, Wang CH, Zhu XY, Li SL, Lin SM, Fang Q. [Clinical study on 156 cases with hydrops fetalis]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2011 Dec. 46(12):905-10. [Medline].

  11. Bellini C, Hennekam RC, Fulcheri E, Rutigliani M, Morcaldi G, Boccardo F. Etiology of nonimmune hydrops fetalis: A systematic review. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar 30. [Medline].

  12. Bellini C, Hennekam RC. Non-immune hydrops fetalis: a short review of etiology and pathophysiology. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Mar. 158A(3):597-605. [Medline].

  13. Bowman J, Harman C, Manning F, et al. Intravenous drug abuse causes Rh immunization. Vox Sang. 1991. 61(2):96-8. [Medline].

  14. Nakayama R, Yamada D, Steinmiller V, Hsia E, Hale RW. Hydrops fetalis secondary to Bart hemoglobinopathy. Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Feb. 67(2):176-80. [Medline].

  15. Joshi DD, Nickerson HJ, McManus MJ. Hydrops fetalis caused by homozygous alpha-thalassemia and Rh antigen alloimmunization: report of a survivor and literature review. Clin Med Res. 2004 Nov. 2(4):228-32. [Medline].

  16. Pfister KM, Schleiss MR, Reed RC, George TN. Non-immune hydrops fetalis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in the setting of recurrent maternal infection. J Perinatol. 2013 Oct. 33(10):817-20. [Medline].

  17. Bachmaier N, Fusch C, Stenger RD, et al. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis due to enterovirus infection. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 Jan. 142(1):83-4. [Medline].

  18. Meritet JF, Krivine A, Lewin F, Poissonnier MH, Poizat R, Loget P. A case of congenital lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection revealed by hydrops fetalis. Prenat Diagn. 2009 Feb 27. [Medline].

  19. Essary LR, Vnencak-Jones CL, Manning SS, et al. Frequency of parvovirus B19 infection in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and utility of three diagnostic methods. Hum Pathol. 1998 Jul. 29(7):696-701. [Medline].

  20. Kiyota A, Tsukimori K, Yumoto Y, et al. Spontaneous resolution of cystic hygroma and hydrops in a fetus with Noonan's syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008. 24(4):499-502. [Medline].

  21. Iskender C, Tarim E, Yalcinkaya C. Prenatal diagnosis of right diaphragmatic eventration associated with fetal hydrops. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012 May. 38(5):858-62. [Medline].

  22. Lee FL, Said N, Grikscheit TC, Shin CE, Llanes A, Chmait RH. Treatment of Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Induced Hydrops Fetalis via Percutaneous Sclerotherapy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2012 Feb 18. [Medline].

  23. Stocker JT, Madewell JE, Drake RM. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. Classification and morphologic spectrum. Hum Pathol. 1977 Mar. 8(2):155-71. [Medline].

  24. Matsubara S, Ohmaru T, Ohkuchi A, Arai F, Kuwata T, Usui R. Mirror syndrome associated with hydropic acardius in triplet pregnancy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008. 24(4):429-33. [Medline].

  25. Liley AW. Liquor amnii analysis in the management of the pregnancy complicated by Rhesus sensitization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1961. 82(6):1359-1370.

  26. [Guideline] Leduc L, Farine D, Armson BA, et al. Stillbirth and bereavement: guidelines for stillbirth investigation. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2006 Jun. 28(6):540-52. [Medline].

  27. Desilets V, Oligny LL. Fetal and perinatal autopsy in prenatally diagnosed fetal abnormalities with normal karyotype. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2011 Oct. 33(10):1047-57. [Medline].

  28. Adzick NS, Harrison MR, Crombleholme TM, et al. Fetal lung lesions: management and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Oct. 179(4):884-9. [Medline].

  29. Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, et al. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med. 1987 Jan 22. 316(4):183-6. [Medline].

  30. Andres RL, Brace RA. The development of hydrops fetalis in the ovine fetus after lymphatic ligation or lymphatic excision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 May. 162(5):1331-4. [Medline].

  31. Aubard Y, Derouineau I, Aubard V, et al. Primary fetal hydrothorax: A literature review and proposed antenatal clinical strategy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 1998 Nov-Dec. 13(6):325-33. [Medline].

  32. Azancot-Benisty A, Areias JC, Oberhansli I, et al. European Study on Maternal and Fetal Management of Fetal Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmia: Proposed Protocol for an International Project. J Matern Fetal Investig. 1998 Jun. 8(2):92-7. [Medline].

  33. Bajoria R, Sullivan M, Fisk NM. Endothelin concentrations in monochorionic twins with severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Hum Reprod. 1999 Jun. 14(6):1614-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  34. Barron SD, Pass RF. Infectious causes of hydrops fetalis. Semin Perinatol. 1995 Dec. 19(6):493-501. [Medline].

  35. Bejar R, Vigliocco G, Gramajo H, et al. Antenatal origin of neurologic damage in newborn infants. II. Multiple gestations. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 May. 162(5):1230-6. [Medline].

  36. Blickstein I. The twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Oct. 76(4):714-22. [Medline].

  37. Bond SJ, Harrison MR, Schmidt KG, et al. Death due to high-output cardiac failure in fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Pediatr Surg. 1990 Dec. 25(12):1287-91. [Medline].

  38. Brace RA. Effects of outflow pressure on fetal lymph flow. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Feb. 160(2):494-7. [Medline].

  39. Brans YW, Milstead RR, Bailey PE, Cassady G. Blood-volume estimates in Coombs-test-positive infants. N Engl J Med. 1974 Jun 27. 290(26):1450-2. [Medline].

  40. Carlson DE, Platt LD, Medearis AL, Horenstein J. Prognostic indicators of the resolution of nonimmune hydrops fetalis and survival of the fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Dec. 163(6 Pt 1):1785-7. [Medline].

  41. Cowan RH, Waldo AL, Harris HB, et al. Neonatal paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with hydrops. Pediatrics. 1975 Mar. 55(3):428-30. [Medline].

  42. Daniel SJ, Cassady G. Non-immunologic hydrops fetalis associated with a large hemangioendothelioma. Pediatrics. 1968 Nov. 42(5):828-33. [Medline].

  43. De Groot CJ, Oepkes D, Egberts J, Kanhai HH. Evidence of endothelium involvement in the pathophysiology of hydrops fetalis?. Early Hum Dev. 2000 Mar. 57(3):205-9. [Medline].

  44. Dieck D, Schild RL, Hansmann M, Eis-Hubinger AM. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital parvovirus B19 infection: value of serological and PCR techniques in maternal and fetal serum. Prenat Diagn. 1999 Dec. 19(12):1119-23. [Medline].

  45. Driscoll SG. Hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med. 1966 Dec 22. 275(25):1432-4. [Medline].

  46. Dumez Y, Mandelbrot L, Radunovic N, et al. Prenatal management of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. J Pediatr Surg. 1993 Jan. 28(1):36-41. [Medline].

  47. Faber JJ, Anderson DF. Angiotensin mediated interaction of fetal kidney and placenta in the control of fetal arterial pressure and its role in hydrops fetalis. Placenta. 1997 May. 18(4):313-26. [Medline].

  48. Gembruch U, Knopfle G, Chatterjee M, et al. First-trimester diagnosis of fetal congenital heart disease by transvaginal two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Mar. 75(3 Pt 2):496-8. [Medline].

  49. Gest AL, Bair DK, Vander Straten MC. The effect of outflow pressure upon thoracic duct lymph flow rate in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 1992 Nov. 32(5):585-8. [Medline].

  50. Gest AL, Hansen TN, Moise AA, Hartley CJ. Atrial tachycardia causes hydrops in fetal lambs. Am J Physiol. 1990 Apr. 258(4 Pt 2):H1159-63. [Medline].

  51. Gest AL, Martin CG, Moise AA, Hansen TN. Reversal of venous blood flow with atrial tachycardia and hydrops in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 1990 Sep. 28(3):223-6. [Medline].

  52. Giacoia GP. Severe fetomaternal hemorrhage: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1997 Jun. 52(6):372-80. [Medline].

  53. Gudmundsson S, Huhta JC, Wood DC, et al. Venous Doppler ultrasonography in the fetus with nonimmune hydrops. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jan. 164(1 Pt 1):33-7. [Medline].

  54. Haak MC, Oosterhof H, Mouw RJ. Pathophysiology and treatment of fetal anemia due to placental chorioangioma. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jul. 14(1):68-70. [Medline].

  55. Hagay Z, Reece A, Roberts A, Hobbins JC. Isolated fetal pleural effusion: a prenatal management dilemma. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Jan. 81(1):147-52. [Medline].

  56. Haverkamp F, Noeker M, Gerresheim G, Fahnenstich H. Good prognosis for psychomotor development in survivors with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Feb. 107(2):282-4. [Medline].

  57. Hirata GI, Masaki DI, O'Toole M, Medearis AL, Platt LD. Color flow mapping and Doppler velocimetry in the diagnosis and management of a placental chorioangioma associated with nonimmune fetal hydrops. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 May. 81(5 ( Pt 2)):850-2. [Medline].

  58. Khouzami AN, Kickler TS, Callan NA, et al. Devastating sequelae of alloimmune thrombocytopenia: an entity that deserves more attention. J Matern Fetal Med. 1996 May-Jun. 5(3):137-41. [Medline].

  59. Kirshon B, Moise KJ Jr, Mari G, et al. In utero resolution of hydrops fetalis following the death of one twin in twin-twin transfusion. Am J Perinatol. 1990 Apr. 7(2):107-9. [Medline].

  60. Knilans TK. Cardiac abnormalities associated with hydrops fetalis. Semin Perinatol. 1995 Dec. 19(6):483-92. [Medline].

  61. Liddle AD, Anderson DR, Mishra PK. Intrapericardial teratoma presenting in fetal life: intrauterine diagnosis and neonatal management. Congenit Heart Dis. 2008 Nov-Dec. 3(6):449-51. [Medline].

  62. Mahone PR, Sherer DM, Abramowicz JS, Woods JR Jr. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: rapid development of severe hydrops of the donor following selective feticide of the hydropic recipient. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Jul. 169(1):166-8. [Medline].

  63. Miller E, Fairley CK, Cohen BJ, Seng C. Immediate and long term outcome of human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Feb. 105(2):174-8. [Medline].

  64. Moise AA, Gest AL, Weickmann PH, McMicken HW. Reduction in plasma protein does not affect body water content in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 1991 Jun. 29(6):623-6. [Medline].

  65. Moise KJ Jr, Carpenter RJ Jr, Hesketh DE. Do abnormal Starling forces cause fetal hydrops in red blood cell alloimmunization?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Oct. 167(4 Pt 1):907-12. [Medline].

  66. Moya FR, Grannum PA, Riddick L, et al. Atrial natriuretic factor in hydrops fetalis caused by Rh isoimmunisation. Arch Dis Child. 1990 Jul. 65(7 Spec No):683-6. [Medline].

  67. Moya FR, Grannum PA, Widness JA, et al. Erythropoietin in human fetuses with immune hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Sep. 82(3):353-8. [Medline].

  68. Muller-Hansen I, Hackeloer BJ, Kattner E. [Pre- and postnatal diagnosis and treatment of hydrops fetalis--an interdisciplinary problem]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 1998 Jan-Feb. 202(1):2-9. [Medline].

  69. Murphy JJ, Blair GK, Fraser GC. Coagulopathy associated with large sacrococcygeal teratomas. J Pediatr Surg. 1992 Oct. 27(10):1308-10. [Medline].

  70. Nimrod C, Davies D, Harder J. Ultrasound evaluation of tachycardia-induced hydrops in the fetal lamb. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Sep. 157(3):655-9. [Medline].

  71. Nimrod C, Keane P, Harder J, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide production in association with nonimmune fetal hydrops. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Sep. 159(3):625-8. [Medline].

  72. O-Prasertsawat P, Suthutvoravut S, Chaturachinda K. Hydrops fetalis due to Bart hemoglobinopathy at Ramathibodi Hospital (1978-1987): a 10-year review. J Med Assoc Thai. 1990 Feb. 73 Suppl 1:65-8. [Medline].

  73. Owen J, Colvin EV, Davis RO. Fetal death after successful conversion of fetal supraventricular tachycardia with digoxin and verapamil. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 May. 158(5):1169-70. [Medline].

  74. Paladini D, Chita SK, Allan LD. Prenatal measurement of cardiothoracic ratio in evaluation of heart disease. Arch Dis Child. 1990 Jan. 65(1 Spec No):20-3. [Medline].

  75. Phibbs RH, Johnson P, Tooley WH. Cardiorespiratory status of erythroblastotic newborn infants. II. Blood volume, hematocrit, and serum albumin concentration in relation to hydrops fetalis. Pediatrics. 1974 Jan. 53(1):13-23. [Medline].

  76. Potter EL. Universal edema of the fetus unassociated with erythroblastosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1943. 46:130-134.

  77. Revillon Y, Jan D, Plattner V, et al. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: prenatal management and prognosis. J Pediatr Surg. 1993 Aug. 28(8):1009-11. [Medline].

  78. Rice HE, Estes JM, Hedrick MH, et al. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: a sheep model of fetal hydrops. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 May. 29(5):692-6. [Medline].

  79. Rodis JF, Borgida AF, Wilson M, et al. Management of parvovirus infection in pregnancy and outcomes of hydrops: a survey of members of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Oct. 179(4):985-8. [Medline].

  80. Ross BA. Congenital complete atrioventricular block. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1990 Feb. 37(1):69-78. [Medline].

  81. Saleeb S, Copel J, Friedman D, Buyon JP. Comparison of treatment with fluorinated glucocorticoids to the natural history of autoantibody-associated congenital heart block: retrospective review of the research registry for neonatal lupus. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Nov. 42(11):2335-45. [Medline].

  82. Sharma RS, Yu V, Walters WA. Haemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome in an infant of Greek origin and prenatal diagnosis of alpha-thalassaemia. Med J Aust. 1979 Oct 20. 2(8):404, 433-4. [Medline].

  83. Shimokawa H, Sumioki H, Miyamoto S, et al. Is human atrial natriuretic peptide in fetal blood useful as a parameter to detect the decompensated state of the fetal heart?. J Perinat Med. 1988. 16(5-6):485-6. [Medline].

  84. Shiraishi S, Kinukawa N, Nakano H, Sueishi K. Immunohistochemical distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor in the human placenta associated with hydrops fetalis. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 1997 Jan-Feb. 17(1):65-81. [Medline].

  85. Silberbach M, Anderson DF, Reller MD. Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on vascular permeation in the ovine fetus. Pediatr Res. 1994 May. 35(5):555-9. [Medline].

  86. Silberbach M, Woods LL, Hohimer AR, et al. Role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in chronic anemia in the ovine fetus: effects of a non-peptide antagonist for atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. Pediatr Res. 1995 Nov. 38(5):722-8. [Medline].

  87. Silverman NH, Schmidt KG. Ventricular volume overload in the human fetus: observations from fetal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1990 Jan-Feb. 3(1):20-9. [Medline].

  88. Simpson JM, Sharland GK. Fetal tachycardias: management and outcome of 127 consecutive cases. Heart. 1998 Jun. 79(6):576-81. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  89. Strasburger JF, Huhta JC, Carpenter RJ Jr, et al. Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of persistent fetal arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Jun. 7(6):1386-91. [Medline].

  90. Sun CC, Panny S, Combs J, Gutberlett R. Hydrops fetalis associated with Gaucher disease. Pathol Res Pract. 1984 Sep. 179(1):101-4. [Medline].

  91. Tannirandorn Y, Fisk NM, Shah V, et al. Plasma renin activity in fetal disease. J Perinat Med. 1990. 18(3):229-31. [Medline].

  92. Thorpe-Beeston JG, Nicolaides KH. Cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung: prenatal diagnosis and outcome. Prenat Diagn. 1994 Aug. 14(8):677-88. [Medline].

  93. Tongsong T, Wanapirak C, Piyamongkol W, Sudasana J. Prenatal sonographic features of sacrococcygeal teratoma. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1999 Nov. 67(2):95-101. [Medline].

  94. Ulm B, Svolba G, Ulm MR, et al. Male fetuses are particularly affected by maternal alloimmunization to D antigen. Transfusion. 1999 Feb. 39(2):169-73. [Medline].

  95. van der Straten MC, Gest AL. Hemolytic anemia without an increased central venous pressure does not cause hydrops in fetal sheep (Abstract). Clin Res. 1993. 41:771A.

  96. van Engelen AD, Weijtens O, Brenner JI, et al. Management outcome and follow-up of fetal tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994 Nov 1. 24(5):1371-5. [Medline].

  97. Venkat-Raman N, Sebire NJ, Murphy KW. Recurrent fetal hydrops due to mucopolysaccharidoses type VII. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006. 21(3):250-4. [Medline].

  98. Ville Y, Proudler A, Kuhn P, Nicolaides KH. Aldosterone concentration in normal, growth-retarded, anemic, and hydropic fetuses. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Oct. 84(4):511-4. [Medline].

  99. Watson J, Campbell S. Antenatal evaluation and management in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Apr. 67(4):589-93. [Medline].

  100. Weiner CP, Pelzer GD, Heilskov J, et al. The effect of intravascular transfusion on umbilical venous pressure in anemic fetuses with and without hydrops. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Dec. 161(6 Pt 1):1498-501. [Medline].

  101. Weiner CP, Robillard JE. Atrial natriuretic factor, digoxin-like immunoreactive substance, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and plasma renin activity in human fetuses and their alteration by fetal disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Dec. 159(6):1353-60. [Medline].

  102. Whitecar PW, Moise KJ Jr. Sonographic methods to detect fetal anemia in red blood cell alloimmunization. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2000 Apr. 55(4):240-50. [Medline].

  103. Williams IA, Kleinman CS. Is hydrops fetalis a manifestation of fetal pulmonary edema caused by impaired lymphatic drainage?. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan. 31(1):96-9. [Medline].

  104. Wolf RB, Moore TR. Amniotic fluid and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 8th ed. 2006. 409-28.

  105. Yaegashi N, Niinuma T, Chisaka H, et al. The incidence of, and factors leading to, parvovirus B19-related hydrops fetalis following maternal infection; report of 10 cases and meta-analysis. J Infect. 1998 Jul. 37(1):28-35. [Medline].

  106. Yamada A, Kasugai M, Ohno Y, et al. Antenatal diagnosis of twin-twin transfusion syndrome by Doppler ultrasound. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Dec. 78(6):1058-61. [Medline].

  107. Yamada H, Kato EH, Furuta I, et al. Hematopoietic cytokine levels and in vitro colony formation assay in fetal anemia. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1998. 24(5):485-90. [Medline].

  108. Zankl A, Osterheld MC, Vial Y, Beurret N, et al. Right-sided diaphragmatic eventration: a rare cause of non-immune hydrops fetalis. Neonatology. 2007. 92(1):14-8. [Medline].

Chest radiograph revealing pleural effusion with bilateral chest tubes and severe edema.
Chest and abdomen radiograph revealing severe edema and ascites.
Chest and abdomen radiograph revealing severe edema, pleural effusion, and bilateral chest tubes. Umbilical artery catheter, umbilical vein catheter, and endotracheal tube in place.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.