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Apnea of Prematurity Workup

  • Author: Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 29, 2014
 

Laboratory Studies

See the list below:

  • A CBC count and cultures of blood, urine, and spinal fluid are necessary if a serious bacterial or fungal infection is suspected in patients with apnea of prematurity (AOP).
    • Appropriate viral cultures or collection of body fluid for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses are performed if a viral pathogen was suspected.
    • A C-reactive protein level measured at 36-48 hours after birth may be useful for excluding infection (see Maternal Chorioamnionitis).
  • Tests for ammonia, amino acid profiles in blood or urine, and organic acid levels in blood and urine are essential if a metabolic disorder is suspected.
    • Testing of pyruvate and lactate concentrations in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be diagnostically helpful when inborn errors of metabolism are among the differential diagnosis.
    • Ketones in the urine may indicate organic acidemia.
  • Serum electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and glucose levels can be useful for diagnosing a recent stressful condition, a metabolic process, or chronic hypoventilation.
  • Analysis of the stool for different toxins related to botulism may reveal a cause in an infant with apnea, constipation, clinically significant hypotonia, difficulty swallowing or crying, or absent eye movements.[100]
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Imaging Studies

See the list below:

  • Chest radiography and/or a nuclear medicine milk scanning can be helpful if the child has persistent but unexplained lower airway symptoms (eg, wheezing and/or repetitive regurgitation after feeding, rumination).[101]
  • In cases of airway obstruction, stridor, or unexplained pathologic obstructive apnea, helpful upper airway evaluations include lateral neck radiography, head and neck 3-dimensional tomography, and otolaryngologic evaluation (eg, fiberoptic assessment of the larynx through the nose during spontaneous breathing).[102]
  • Imaging studies of intracranial pathology are necessary when hemorrhage is suspected or when findings include dysmorphic facial and somatic features, abnormal neurologic results, disordered hair whorls, and/or mental status changes.
  • A barium swallow study is useful if the infant has signs of swallowing dysfunction or anatomic anomalies (eg, an esophageal web, tracheoesophageal fistula).
  • A gastric-emptying study and abdominal sonography are useful in patients whose clinical picture includes a generalized GI motility disorder or pyloric stenosis.
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Other Tests

See the list below:

  • Obtain a polysomnographic, or continuous multichannel, recording to measure the chest-wall movement, nasal and/or oral airflow (or change in air temperature), O2 saturation, and heart rate trend. A 2-channel pneumogram that is used to measure only chest-wall excursion and trends in heart rate provides insufficient information. The following results are diagnostic:
    • Central apnea - Absence of nasal airflow and wall movement
    • Obstructive apnea - Lack of airflow despite chest-wall movement
    • Mixed apnea - Combined results of central and obstructive apnea
  • If gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is suspected, note the intraesophageal pH as part of the multichannel recording.
  • Consider obtaining an electroencephalogram (EEG) in infants who have suspected apneic seizures or who have persistent pathologic central apnea without an identifiable cause.
  • Obtain an echocardiogram and consult a cardiologist if the patient's history or physical findings (eg, feeding difficulties, heart murmur, cyanosis) suggest cardiac disease.
  • ECG results are useful in patients with severe unexplained tachycardia or bradycardia. Abnormalities in cardiac conduction (eg, prolonged-QT syndrome) are infrequent but important causes of apnea during infancy.
  • Evaluate patients for unilateral choanal stenosis and choanal atresia by passing a small-diameter feeding tube through both nares. Three-dimensional tomography is probably the method of choice for definitively diagnosing upper airway malformations.
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Procedures

See the list below:

  • Several studies may reveal diagnostic findings in selected infants. These include fiberoptic examination of the larynx through the nose during spontaneous breathing, direct laryngoscopy, and bronchoscopy (which is usually performed with the patient under anesthesia).
  • Emergency or scheduled tracheostomy may be used to manage severe airway obstruction caused by a number of conditions.
    • Tracheostomy might occur after the airway is stabilized by using endotracheal intubation.
    • Jaw-distraction surgery was recently used to avoid tracheostomy in neonatal conditions (eg, Robin sequence) that involve severe micrognathia as a component of malformation.[103, 104]
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Dharmendra J Nimavat, MD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Michael P Sherman, MD, FAAP Professor, Department of Child Health, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine; Neonatologist, Women’s and Children’s Hospital; Professor Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Michael P Sherman, MD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, American Thoracic Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, European Society for Paediatric Research, Western Society for Pediatric Research, Perinatal Research Society, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Rene L Santin, MD 

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Arun K Pramanik, MD, MBBS Professor of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Arun K Pramanik, MD, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Thoracic Society, National Perinatal Association, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynecology, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, University of Connecticut School of Medicine

Ted Rosenkrantz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Pediatric Society, Eastern Society for Pediatric Research, American Medical Association, Connecticut State Medical Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Rachel Porat, MD Director, Neonatal Apnea Monitoring Program, Assistant Director, Division of Neonatology, Albert Einstein Medical Center; Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University

Rachel Porat, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Central apnea is defined as the cessation of both airflow and respiratory effort. ECG = electrocardiogram; HR = heart rate; THO = thoracic impedance; FLOW = air flow; ACT = ; SpO2 = peripheral oxygen saturation; STAGE = sleep stage.
Polysomnogram. Mixed apnea contains elements of both central and obstructive apnea. ECG = electrocardiogram; HR = heart rate (bpm); THO = thoracic movement; FLOW = flow the from nose and mouth; ACT = gross body movement; SpO2 = peripheral oxygen saturation (%); STAGE = sleep stage, where AT = active sleep.
Polysomnogram. Periodic breathing is defined as periods of regular respiration for as long as 20 seconds followed by apneic periods no longer than 10 seconds that occur at least 3 times in succession. ECG = electrocardiogram; HR = heart rate (bpm); THO = thoracic movement; FLOW = flow the from nose and mouth; ACT = gross body movement.
 
 
 
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