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Biotin Deficiency Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD; Chief Editor: Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS, FAAP  more...
 
Updated: Jan 31, 2016
 
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Dermatology, Weil Cornell Medical College; Consulting Staff, Department of Dermatology, St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary; Assistant Attending Dermatologist, New York Presbyterian Hospital; Assistant Attending Dermatologist, Lenox Hill Hospital, North Shore-LIJ Health System; Private Practice

Noah S Scheinfeld, JD, MD, FAAD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Abbvie<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Optigenex<br/>Received salary from Optigenex for employment.

Coauthor(s)

Stephanie Beth Freilich, MD Clinical Instructor, Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Clinical Assistant, Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai Hospital

Stephanie Beth Freilich, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, New York County Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS, FAAP Professor of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University; Chief, Division of Neonatology, Director, Fellowship Program in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Director, Transport/ECMO/Nutrition, Vice Chair, Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia

Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Nutrition, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Gerber.

Chief Editor

Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS, FAAP Professor of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University; Chief, Division of Neonatology, Director, Fellowship Program in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Director, Transport/ECMO/Nutrition, Vice Chair, Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia

Jatinder Bhatia, MBBS, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Nutrition, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Gerber.

Additional Contributors

Maria Rebello Mascarenhas, MBBS Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Section Chief of Nutrition, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Director, Nutrition Support Service, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Maria Rebello Mascarenhas, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: American Gastroenterological Association, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, Howard R Sloan, MD, PhD†, to the development and writing of this article.

References
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Biotin is a bicyclic (more precisely, heterocyclic) compound composed of an ureido ring (A) fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring (B). A valeric acid substituent is attached to one of the carbon atoms of the tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Carboxybiotin carboxylase is the activated form of a carboxylase that conducts the actual carboxylation of a substrate. The CO2 residue attached to the nitrogen atom diagonally across from the valeric acid substituent is transferred to the substrate to be carboxylated, and the original carboxylase is liberated intact.
Depiction of the flow of biotin in the biotin cycle.
Biocytin is the product of the complete proteolysis of biotin-containing proteins and peptides. The enzyme biotinidase cleaves biocytin into free biotin and the amino acid lysine. The free biotin is then available for intestinal absorption or intracellular coupling to an apocarboxylase to form a holocarboxylase.
The biotin molecule is bound to the protein by a peptide bond to an e-amino group of an apocarboxylase to form a holocarboxylase.
 
 
 
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