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Pediatric Acute Myelocytic Leukemia Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Mark E Weinblatt, MD; Chief Editor: Jennifer Reikes Willert, MD  more...
Updated: Mar 31, 2016

Diagnostic Considerations

Children may not have well-known symptoms of leukemia, such as adenopathy, overt bleeding, and serious infections. Nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue, irritability, fevers, and bruising, are common in childhood and might not be recognized as symptoms of leukemia, thus delaying a diagnosis of leukemia. Persistence of these symptoms should prompt further investigation.

Differentials in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, aside from those listed in the next section, include the following:

  • Aplastic anemia
  • Drug-induced pancytopenia
  • Viral-induced pancytopenia
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Transient myeloproliferative syndrome in Down syndrome

Differential Diagnoses

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Mark E Weinblatt, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital

Mark E Weinblatt, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Society of Hematology, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, American Society of Clinical Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Timothy P Cripe, MD, PhD, FAAP Chief, Division of Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Gordon Teter Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cancer, Nationwide Children's Hospital; Professor of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine

Timothy P Cripe, MD, PhD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association for Cancer Research, American Pediatric Society, American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Connective Tissue Oncology Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Children's Oncology Group

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Jennifer Reikes Willert, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Stanford University Medical Center, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital

Jennifer Reikes Willert, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society of Hematology, American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Children's Oncology Group, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Kathleen M Sakamoto, MD, PhD Shelagh Galligan Professor, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine

Kathleen M Sakamoto, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: International Society for Experimental Hematology, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Gingival hyperplasia in a patient with monoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia cutis (a skin nodule) in a patient with leukemia.
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