Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in children represent a heterogeneous group of expanding, monoclonal or oligoclonal, lymphoid cells that occur in the setting of immune dysfunction. The risk of true malignancy in affected children is significantly higher than the risk in immunocompetent children. Treatment must be tailored to the child's underlying immune disorder, to the aggressiveness of the clone, and to the likelihood of causing clinically significant toxicity.
In this article, underlying immunodeficiency disorders are reviewed in the context of the type of lymphoproliferative disorder encountered.
Lymphoproliferative disorders occur in children with immunodysfunction. Because this is a heterogeneous disease group, the incidence rate is difficult to estimate.
Mortality and morbidity in children vary considerably and depend on the underlying immunodeficiency syndrome.
Overall, no significant racial predilection has been reported.
The overall male-to-female ratio is 1:1, except for X-linked immunodeficiency syndromes, which primarily affect male individuals; however, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome occasionally affects female individuals. In scenarios such as this, mutations in the gene that encodes NFkappaB essential modifier (NEMO), which can be inherited in autosomal dominant fashion, lead to immunodeficiency syndromes in members of both sexes.
Lymphoproliferative disorders can occur in any age group but are relatively uncommon in infants and toddlers. They become progressively more common with age.
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