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WAGR Syndrome Treatment & Management

  • Author: Steven K Bergstrom, MD; Chief Editor: Max J Coppes, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
 
Updated: Dec 02, 2015
 

Medical Care

Treatment considerations include the following:

  • Urology: After aniridia, GU abnormalities, and mental retardation (AGR) syndrome or Wilms tumor aniridia, GU abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR) syndrome is diagnosed, GU abnormalities must be evaluated immediately, and the patient should be referred to a pediatric urologist.
  • Genetics: Although the abnormality associated with WAGR syndrome may not be demonstrated by means of routine cytogenetic tests, the geneticist can help in assessing the 11p13 region using fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques. He or she can consult with the family regarding the likelihood of their having other affected offspring, and the geneticist can consult with patients regarding the risks to their offspring.
  • Oncology: Once a Wilms tumor is diagnosed in a patient with WAGR syndrome, the services of a pediatric oncologist are required for treatment and follow-up.
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Surgical Care

Specific urologic intervention may be required early in patients with AGR syndrome. However, if a Wilms tumor develops, a multidisciplinary approach is required prior to surgery.

One study reviewed data on patients with bilateral Wilms tumors (BWT) treated according to the National Wilms Tumor Study-4. The results demonstrated that preservation of renal parenchyma is possible following initial preoperative chemotherapy. An increased incidence of end-stage renal failure was shown, even in patients who did not have bilateral nephrectomies. Further investigation is required to determine the need for earlier biopsy in nonresponsive tumors and earlier definitive surgery in patients with unfavorable histology.[15]

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Consultations

A pediatric ophthalmologist should be consulted early in the course of the disease to evaluate the ocular deformity, and this ophthalmologist should follow-up with the patient for long-term consequences (eg, vision loss, potential cataract development).

The potential for developmental delay in children with AGR or WAGR syndrome requires early evaluation and intervention by a pediatric developmental specialist. On the basis of the findings from this evaluation, children with vision impairment and mental retardation can be appropriately referred to community resources.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Steven K Bergstrom, MD Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center of Oakland

Steven K Bergstrom, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Children's Oncology Group, American Society of Clinical Oncology, International Society for Experimental Hematology, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Timothy P Cripe, MD, PhD, FAAP Chief, Division of Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Gordon Teter Endowed Chair in Pediatric Cancer, Nationwide Children's Hospital; Professor of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine

Timothy P Cripe, MD, PhD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association for Cancer Research, American Pediatric Society, American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Connective Tissue Oncology Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Children's Oncology Group

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Max J Coppes, MD, PhD, MBA Executive Vice President, Chief Medical and Academic Officer, Renown Heath

Max J Coppes, MD, PhD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Healthcare Executives, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Stephan A Grupp, MD, PhD Director, Stem Cell Biology Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Stephan A Grupp, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for Cancer Research, Society for Pediatric Research, American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Al-Hussain T, Ali A, Akhtar M. Wilms tumor: an update. Adv Anat Pathol. 2014 May. 21 (3):166-73. [Medline].

  2. Yamamoto T, Togawa M, Shimada S, Sangu N, Shimojima K, Okamoto N. Narrowing of the responsible region for severe developmental delay and autistic behaviors in WAGR syndrome down to 1.6 Mb including PAX6, WT1, and PRRG4. Am J Med Genet A. 2014 Mar. 164A (3):634-8. [Medline].

  3. Han JC, Thurm A, Golden Williams C, et al. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) haploinsufficiency with lower adaptive behaviour and reduced cognitive functioning in WAGR/11p13 deletion syndrome. Cortex. 2013 Feb 19. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  4. Han JC, Liu QR, Jones M, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and obesity in the WAGR syndrome. N Engl J Med. Aug 2008. 359:918-927. [Medline].

  5. Rodriguez-Lopez R, Perez JM, Balsera AM, et al. The modifier effect of the BDNF gene in the phenotype of the WAGRO syndrome. Gene. 2013 Mar 10. 516(2):285-90. [Medline].

  6. D'Angio GJ, Breslow N, Beckwith JB, et al. Treatment of Wilms' tumor. Results of the Third National Wilms' Tumor Study. Cancer. 1989 Jul 15. 64(2):349-60. [Medline].

  7. Breslow N, Olshan A Beckwith JB. Epidemiology of Wilms tumor. Med Ped Oncol. 1993. 21:172-181.

  8. Robinson DO, Howarth RJ, Williamson KA, van Hyningen V, Beal SJ, Crolla JA. Genetic analysis of chromosome 11p13 and the PAX6 gene in a series of 125 cases referred with aniridia. Am J Med Genet A. Mar 2008. 164A:558-569. [Medline].

  9. Termine C, Parigi G, Rossi M, Romano P, Balotin U. WAGR syndrome: is the 'R' always justified?. Clin Dysmorphol. Jan 2007. 16:69-70. [Medline].

  10. Knudson AG, Strong LC. Mutation and cancer: a model for Wilms tumor of the kidney. J Natl Cancer Inst. Feb 1972. 48:313-324.

  11. Call KM, Glaser T, Ito CY. Isolation and characterization of a zinc finger polypeptide gene at the human chromosome 11 Wilms tumor locus. Cell. Feb 1990. 60:509-520.

  12. Ton CCT, Hirvonen H, Miwa H. Positional cloning and characterization of a paired box- and homeobox-containing gene from the aniridia region. Cell. 1991. 67:1059-1074.

  13. Haber DA, Oshn RL, Buckler AJ. Alternative splicing and alternative structure of the Wilms tumor gene WT1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991. 88:9618-9622.

  14. Tezcan B, Rich P, Bhide A. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015. 2015:928585. [Medline].

  15. Hamilton TE, Ritchey ML, Haase GM,et al. The management of synchronous bilateral wilms tumor: a report from the national wilms tumor study group. Ann Surg. 2011 May. 253(5):1004-10. [Medline].

  16. Beckwith JB. Precursor lesions of Wilms tumor: clinical and biological impications. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1993. 21:158-168.

  17. Fischbach BV, Trout KL, Lewis J. WAGR syndrome: A clinical review of 54 cases. Pediatrics. Oct 2005. 116:984-988.

  18. Dahan K, Kamal M, Noel LH, et al. Small glomeruli in WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies and mental retardation) syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. June 2007. 49:522-527.

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Subjects were categorized as BDNF haploinsufficient by comparative genomic hybridization. Subject A has a large deletion on chromosome 11 that removes one copy of the BDNF gene. Subject B has a smaller deletion that does not remove BDNF.
Aniridia. Note the almost complete absence of the iris.
 
 
 
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