Pediatric Retropharyngeal Abscess Clinical Presentation
- Author: Jason L Acevedo, MD; Chief Editor: Ravindhra G Elluru, MD, PhD more...
Patients with a retropharyngeal abscess present with constitutional complaints, such as fever, chills, malaise, decreased appetite, and irritability.
In addition, they may complain of a sore throat, difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), pain on swallowing (odynophagia), jaw stiffness (trismus), or neck stiffness (torticollis). Small children with torticollis tend to hold their neck in a nonneutral position and do not turn their head from side to side.
Patients may also complain of a muffled voice, the sensation of a lump in the throat, or pain in the back and shoulders upon swallowing.
Difficulty in breathing may be an ominous portent of airway obstruction.
The patient history is not always straightforward. Symptoms (with decreasing incidence) can include fever, sore throat, dysphagia, trismus, decreased appetite, voice change, odynophagia, neck pain, irritability, and difficulty breathing. A review by Grisaru-Soen et al showed fever (70%) and neck pain (62%) to be the most common symptoms.
The course of pharyngeal abscess can be insidious. In some cases, an upper respiratory illness can precede symptoms by weeks. Many patients do not recall (or parents or caregivers are not aware of) incidences of penetrating trauma. Accordingly, it is vital to maintain a high index of suspicion, especially in patients with upper respiratory illnesses that appear not to resolve in a normal course or to respond to conventional therapy.
Most patients with a retropharyngeal abscess are febrile. Some may even appear toxic and irritable. Tender cervical lymphadenopathy, usually unilateral, is the most common physical finding in these patients. Patients may have decreased or painful range of motion of their necks or jaws. Some patients may present with a muffled "hot potato" voice (dysphonia).
Upon inspection of the oral cavity, the physician may be able to appreciate a bulge in the posterior pharyngeal wall. The retropharyngeal bulge is typically not in the midline, because of the presence of the raphe that divides the retropharyngeal space.
Patients in respiratory distress or those who present with stridor or drooling have potential airway compromise and should be managed expeditiously. The patient should also be carefully evaluated for extension of the infection to the carotid sheath, the mediastinum, or both.
Complications of retropharyngeal abscess arise from mass effect, rupture, or spread. A study of 138 patients over a 10-year period demonstrated mediastinitis to be the most common complication (nine patients); it also demonstrated that younger patients, and those with S aureus infections, were at higher risk for complications.
The mass of the abscess in the retropharyngeal space can compress the airway, which lies immediately anterior to it. Because this is the most immediately life-threatening complication of retropharyngeal abscess, it must be addressed first, as follows:
Secure the airways of patients in respiratory distress and in patients with stridor or drooling
Attempt airway stabilization by repositioning the neck and head
If repositioning the neck and head is not successful, provide definitive airway control, which can be accomplished by means of endotracheal intubation (under direct visualization), fiberoptic intubation, needle cricothyroidostomy, cricothyroidotomy, or surgical tracheotomy
Abscess rupture can lead to asphyxiation or aspiration pneumonia. The abscess can rupture spontaneously or can be ruptured iatrogenically during vigorous physical examination or attempted intubation. Chest radiography is indicated to assess for pneumonia. Abscess rupture requires aggressive airway management, including suctioning and broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy.
Infection can spread either laterally or posteriorly to adjacent structures in the neck, or it can progress inferiorly to the mediastinum. Lateral spread can involve the carotid sheath, where it can cause vascular complications. One case study detailed a pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid secondary to a retropharyngeal abscess.
Posterior spread can affect the cervical spine. Osteomyelitis necessitates long-term antibiotic therapy. Erosion of the ligaments can cause subluxation and subsequent spinal cord injuries. Destruction of the transverse ligament of the atlas has been known to cause atlanto-occipital dislocation.
Inferior spread of infection can cause several life-threatening complications. Chest radiography is indicated in the initial workup. Inflammation in the mediastinum can cause mediastinitis, purulent pericarditis, pericardial tamponade, bronchial erosion, and mediastinal abscess. Spread to the adjacent pleura can cause pleuritis, pyopneumothorax, or empyema. In addition to antibiotics, drainage of pus via pericardiocentesis, pericardial window, chest tube thoracostomy, or open thoracotomy may be necessary.
The infection also can evolve into overwhelming sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis in the neck or mediastinum.
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