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Pediatric Ascariasis Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: William H Shoff, MD, DTM&H; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 05, 2015
 
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

William H Shoff, MD, DTM&H Director, PENN Travel Medicine; Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

William H Shoff, MD, DTM&H is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, International Society of Travel Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Catherine T Shoff, DO Staff Physician, Departments of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Director, Tri-Services Adult Cystic Fibrosis Center, Wilford Hall Medical Center; Assistant Professor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Catherine T Shoff, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Martin Weisse, MD Program Director, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, West Virginia University

Martin Weisse, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Academic Pediatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Michael D Nissen, MBBS FRACP, FRCPA, Associate Professor in Biomolecular, Biomedical Science & Health, Griffith University; Director of Infectious Diseases and Unit Head of Queensland Paediatric Infectious Laboratory, Sir Albert Sakzewski Viral Research Centre, Royal Children's Hospital

Michael D Nissen, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, Royal Australasian College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Michael E Greenberg, MD, MPH Clinical Instructor, Department of Pediatrics, University of California at San Francisco

Michael E Greenberg, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Ambulatory Pediatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, and American Public Health Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Suzanne Moore Shepherd, MD, MS, DTM&H, FACEP, FAAEM Associate Professor, Education Officer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania; Director of Education and Research, PENN Travel Medicine

Suzanne Moore Shepherd, MD, MS, DTM&H, FACEP, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, International Society of Travel Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, and Wilderness Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides causes ascariasis. Worms can reach 10-30 cm in length. Clinical disease results from effects of pulmonary larval migration, intestinal obstruction, or migration through the biliary tree.
Table 1. Major Soil-Transmitted Helminths[1, 2]
Parasite*DiseasePrevalence
A lumbricoidesCommon roundworm infection, ascariasis800 million to 1.4 billion
T trichiuraWhipworm infection, trichuriasis600 million to 1 billion
Necator americanus and



Ancylostoma duodenale



Hookworm infection580 million to 1.2 billion
Strongyloides stercoralisThreadworm infection, strongyloidiasis30-300 million
Enterobius vermicularisPinworm infection4-28% of children
Toxocara canis and



Toxocara cati



Visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans2-80% of children
*All major parasites are found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates.
Table 2. Minor Soil-Transmitted Helminths[1, 2]
Minor ParasiteDiseaseDistribution
Ancylostoma brazilienseCutaneous larva migransCostal regions worldwide
Uncinaria stenocephalaCutaneous larva migransCostal regions worldwide
Ancyclostoma caniumEosinophilic enteritisAustralia
Ancylostoma ceylanicumHookworm infectionAsia
Oesophagostomum bifurcumNodular worm infectionNorth America
Strongyloides fuelleborniSwollen belly syndromeWest Africa
Ternidens diminutusFalse hookworm infectionSouthern Africa
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