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Enterobiasis Follow-up

  • Author: Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 27, 2016
 

Inpatient & Outpatient Medications

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  • An antihelminthic medication should be prescribed to patients with enterobiasis .
  • Application of an antipruritic ointment or albendazole may help control scratching.[11]
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Deterrence/Prevention

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  • Thorough handwashing can deter transmission.
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Complications

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  • Beware of skin infection from vigorous scratching to relieve pruritus.
  • Pinworms have been associated with appendicitis,[13, 14] nocturnal vaginal discharge,[15] and inflammation of the female genital tract.[15] However, small and large intestine ulcerations, perianal abscesses, intestinal pain, transient synovitis, or enuresis is believed to be coincidental and not causal.[16]
  • If a patient with enterobiasis is refractory to treatment, consider the possibility of an infestation with Dipylidium caninum, which is a common tapeworm that infects domestic cats and dogs.[17]
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Prognosis

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  • Prognosis is excellent, but reinfestation is common.
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Patient Education

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  • Inform families that dogs and cats do not harbor E vermicularis.
  • Inform families that infestation may occur in spite of proper child and household hygiene.
  • Counsel families to avoid overreaction through aggressive sanitary measures. Because infectious eggs may be in bedclothes and dust and remain infectious for 20 days, wet-mopping floors or vacuuming carpets and washing bedclothes are prudent precautions.
  • Reassuring families that pinworms are not a sexually transmitted disease and are not evidence of child abuse may be helpful.
  • Keeping the patient's fingernails trimmed to prevent excoriations is helpful.
  • Avoid scratching the area and nail biting because this is a cause of autoinfection.
  • Encourage the patient to bathe in the morning, this significantly reduces the number of eggs.
  • Children may return to school once they have received a dose of medication, bathed, and have nails trimmed.
  • Bed linens should be washed in hot, soapy water.
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mercy St Vincent Medical Center; Chairman, Pediatric Institutional Review Board, Mercy St Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio

Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Steven Indra, DO Emergency Medicine Physician, Mercy Health System

Steven Indra, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association, American Osteopathic Association, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Lukuman Olumide Afuwape, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mercy St Vincent Medical Center

Lukuman Olumide Afuwape, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Michael D Nissen, MBBS FRACP, FRCPA, Associate Professor in Biomolecular, Biomedical Science & Health, Griffith University; Director of Infectious Diseases and Unit Head of Queensland Paediatric Infectious Laboratory, Sir Albert Sakzewski Viral Research Centre, Royal Children's Hospital

Michael D Nissen, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, Royal Australasian College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Jennifer A Curry, MD, MPH Attending Physician, Infectious Disease Clinic, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth; Assistant Professor of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Jennifer A Curry, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American Society for Microbiology, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Enterobiasis. Available at http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Enterobiasis.htm. Accessed: June 17, 2013.

  2. Salim N, Schindler T, Abdul U, Rothen J, Genton B, Lweno O, et al. Enterobiasis and strongyloidiasis and associated co-infections and morbidity markers in infants, preschool- and school-aged children from rural coastal Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 9. 14:644. [Medline].

  3. Song HJ, Cho CH, Kim JS, Choi MH, Hong ST. Prevalence and risk factors for enterobiasis among preschool children in a metropolitan city in Korea. Parasitol Res. 2003 Sep. 91(1):46-50. [Medline].

  4. Kim DH, Son HM, Kim JY, Cho MK, Park MK, Kang SY, et al. Parents' knowledge about enterobiasis might be one of the most important risk factors for enterobiasis in children. Korean J Parasitol. 2010 Jun. 48(2):121-6. [Medline].

  5. Fontanet AL, Sahlu T, Rinke de Wit T, et al. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000 Apr. 94(3):269-78. [Medline].

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pinworms. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/pinworm/epi.html. Accessed: June 17, 2013.

  7. [Guideline] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Vaginitis. Washington (DC): American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG); 2006 May. 12 p. (ACOG practice bulletin; no. 72). [Full Text].

  8. Ariyarathenam AV, Nachimuthu S, Tang TY, et al. Enterobius vermicularis infestation of the appendix and management at the time of laparoscopic appendectomy: case series and literature review. Int J Surg. 2010. 8(6):466-9. [Medline].

  9. Snow M. Pinning down pinworms. Nursing. 2006 May. 36(5):17. [Medline].

  10. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pinworm Infection (Enterobius vermicularis). Report of the committee on infectious disease. 2015. 621-22.

  11. Singh SP, Panda C, Rout N, Mishra AP. Anal Albendazole application for pruritus ani in threadworm infestation. J Trop Pediatr. 2005 Dec. 51(6):386. [Medline].

  12. Wen LY, Yan XL, Sun FH, Fang YY, Yang MJ, Lou LJ. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial on the efficacy of ivermectin against intestinal nematode infections in China. Acta Trop. 2008 Jun. 106(3):190-4. [Medline].

  13. Ramezani MA, Dehghani MR. Relationship between Enterobius vermicularis and the incidence of acute appendicitis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007 Jan. 38(1):20-3. [Medline].

  14. Sodergren MH, Jethwa P, Wilkinson S, Kerwat R. Presenting features of Enterobius vermicularis in the vermiform appendix. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009. 44(4):457-61. [Medline].

  15. Vose L. Pinworm in pregnancy. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2012 Mar-Apr. 57(2):184-7. [Medline].

  16. Arca MJ, Gates RL, Groner JI, Hammond S, Caniano DA. Clinical manifestations of appendiceal pinworms in children: an institutional experience and a review of the literature. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004 May. 20(5):372-5. [Medline].

  17. Samkari A, Kiska DL, Riddell SW, et al. Dipylidium caninum mimicking recurrent enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008 May. 47(4):397-9. [Medline].

  18. Hoekelman RA. Pinworm Infestation. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 15th ed. 1987.

  19. Kucik CJ, MartinGL, Sortor BV. Common Intestinal Parasites. Am Fam Physician. Mar 2004. 69(5):11621-8.

  20. Lormans JA, Wesel AJ, Vanprus OF. Mebendazole in enterobiasis. A clinical trial in mental retardates. Chemotherapy. 1975. 21:255.

  21. McCarthy J, Loukas A, Hotez PJ. Chemotherapy of Helminth Infections. Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. Chapter 51.

  22. Otu-Bassey IB, Ejezie GC, Epoke J, Useh. Enterobiasis and its relationship with anal itching and enuresis among school-age children in Calabar, Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. Sep 2005. 99(6):611-6.

  23. Song HJ, Cho CH, Kim JS, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for enterobiasis among preschool children in a metropolitan city in Korea. Parasitol Res. 2003 Sep. 91(1):46-50. [Medline].

  24. Symmers WS. Pathology of oxyuriasis; with special reference to granulomas due to the presence of Oxyuris vermicularis (Enterobius vermicularis) and its ova in the tissues. AMA Arch Pathol. 1950 Oct. 50(4):475-516. [Medline].

  25. Weller TH, Sorenson CW. Enterobiasis: Its incidence and symptomatology in a group of 505 children. NEJM. 1941. 224:143.

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Because of the short incubation time until the ova are infectious, eggs that are deposited under the fingernails during scratching and then placed in the mouth may be a mode of reinfestation.
 
 
 
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