Fascioliasis is a waterborne and foodborne zoonotic disease caused by two parasites of class Trematoda, genus Fasciola; namely F.hepatica and F.  giganticaHumans are incidental hosts and become infected by ingesting contaminated watercress or water. The illness occurs worldwide, particularly in regions with intensive sheep or cattle production. Incidence of human infection has increased over the past 20 years. [2, 3, 4]
Sheep, cattle and goats are the definitive hosts. Other alternate herbivore hosts are horses, pigs, buffaloes, donkeys and pigs. The adult worms reside in the biliary passages of these hosts and are shed in their stools. 
In humans, maturation from metacercariae into adult flukes takes approximately 3 to 4 months. The adult flukes (Fasciola hepatica: up to 30 mm by 13 mm; F. gigantica: up to 75 mm) reside in the large biliary ducts of the mammalian host. Fasciola hepatica infect various animal species, mostly herbivores (plant-eating animals).
F. hepatica is the only form of fascioliasis reported in the USA and only few such cases are acquired within, mainly reported from Hawaiian Islands, California and Florida. [6, 7] Large majority of the cases of fascioliasis are imported by travelers from the countries like Mexico, Puerto Rico, Haiti, Egypt, Thailand, Yemen, Peru, Portugal, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Ireland and Dominican Republic.  Few cases of fascioliasis were found in refugees from Southeast Asia living in the USA. 
Due to endemic prevalence of lymnaeid snails in the USA, the domestically acquired cases of fascioliasis are expected to be reported in the future. 
Up to 17 million cases have been estimated to be affected with fascioliasis worldwide. [9, 10] F. hepatica typically occurs worldwide in temperate regions, except Oceania. F. gigantica causes outbreaks in tropical areas of Southern Asia,  Southeast Asia, and Africa. Infection is most prevalent in regions with intensive sheep and cattle production. Miracidia require temperate water to develop and hatch.
Disease prevalence is particularly high in specific regions of Bolivia (65-92%), Ecuador (24-53%), Egypt (2-17%), and Peru (10%). [12, 13] As many as 68% of Bolivian children in hyperendemic areas have evidence of infection, as do 11% of Ethiopians who emigrated to Israel. An epidemic of fascioliasis in IRAN was estimated to affect 10,000 people. 
In a study of approximately 3,000 Egyptian children, 3% were infected. Many were severely anemic. Among individuals who presented with fever of unknown origin to an Egyptian hospital, 4% had F. hepatica. F. hepatica caused disease that formerly occurred in scattered endemic foci along the Nile River and has now spread throughout the Nile Valley.
Travelers to and immigrants from regions of high endemicity are most frequently affected, as illustrated by a survey of imported cases in the United Kingdom. 
A distinct syndrome of fascioliasis, termed halzoun in Lebanon and marrerra in the Sudan, can result from consuming raw livers of infected sheep, goats, or cows. The living fluke adheres to the posterior pharyngeal wall, causing severe pharyngitis and laryngeal edema. Similarly, disease can follow consumption of sashimi of bovine liver served in "Yakitori" bars in Japan, if the liver is contaminated with juvenile worms.
Because of the large numbers of people infected worldwide, fascioliasis causes considerable morbidity. In children, fascioliasis is often associated with severe anemia, although it is seldom fatal.
Fascioliasis infection has no apparent racial predilection.
Approximately 60% of infections occur in males, which may reflect occupational, dietary, or recreational exposures.
Although most reported patients are adults, fascioliasis appears to equally affect people of all ages. Some geographic difference is observed in the age-related incidence of the disease; for example, it is rarely reported in children in Turkey.
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