Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Taenia Infection Workup

  • Author: Sowmya Nanjappa, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 06, 2015
 

Laboratory Studies

Intestinal taeniasis

CBC count detects eosinophilia in no more than 45% of patients.

Examine 3 consecutive stool samples (direct and concentrated stool preparations) from patients and contacts.

  • Determination of species on the basis of ova examination is difficult because the eggs of T solium and T saginata are identical.
  • Examining the gravid proglottids helps identify the species; count the main uterine branches after injection with India ink (ie, 7-13 branches for T solium, 15-20 for T saginata).
  • Examining the scolex helps differentiate the species because a T solium scolex has 4 suckers and an armed rostellum.

Neurocysticercosis (NCC)

Examine stool samples as described above.

Perform a lumbar puncture.[21]

  • CSF findings are abnormal in 50-90% of patients with NCC (but may be normal in children with single-lesion disease).
  • Protein levels are usually elevated (but may be normal in children with single-lesion disease).
  • Glucose levels are usually mildly to moderately depressed (but may be normal in children with single-lesion disease).
  • A predominantly mononuclear pleocytosis is common.
  • Cell counts rarely exceed 300/μL.

Eosinophils in the CSF are a common but nonspecific finding. Giemsa or Wright stains should be performed to detect their presence.

An enzyme-linked immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the test of choice to confirm the diagnosis of NCC indicated by clinical and radiologic findings. Test specificity is 100% and sensitivity is 90% with more than 2 lesions; sensitivity declines to 50-70% with a solitary lesion. Therefore, EITB assay may have limited value for children because most present with a single lesion. A serum immunoblot assay is more sensitive than the assay using CSF, thus obtaining CSF solely for that purpose is unnecessary.

Although an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be performed on both CSF and serum, CSF provides better reliability. ELISA may provide either false-positive or false-negative results. ELISA provides a reported sensitivity of 75%. ELISA can aid in diagnosis in patients with few CNS lesions and relatively mild disease. Newer serologic methods may allow improved diagnostic testing.[22]

Next

Imaging Studies

Radiography

Plain films of the chest, neck, arms, and thighs can depict calcified cysticerci, although calcification takes approximately 3 years, and sometimes longer, to occur.

A central calcified scolex surrounded by a calcified cyst wall is pathognomonic.

CT

Perform CT scanning in all children presenting with new-onset focal seizures.

Although CT scanning is superior to MRI to detect intracerebral calcification, calcification occurs less frequently in children than in adults.

CT scanning reveals both cysts and granulomata. Cysts, which may be single or multiple, are approximately 5-20 mm in diameter. Most children (ie, 75%) have a single cyst, usually located in the cortex or at the junction of gray and white matter.

CT scanning can also detect edema associated with dead worms. The dead worms appear as spherical hypodensities, often with the parasite's protoscolex appearing as an eccentric dot of calcium (ie, mural nodule).

CT scanning with contrast shows a ring-enhancing image. Later obliteration of the cyst may produce a solid-enhanced image.

MRI

MRI is superior to CT scanning in detecting intraventricular and subarachnoid cysts.

MRI may reveal a mural nodule within the cyst, which is pathognomonic for NCC.

MRI with parallel imaging may facilitate detection of cysts.[23]

See the Neurocysticercosis Case from the Gorgas Course in Clinical Tropical Medicine and the image below for typical lesions revealed using CT scanning and MRI.

Brain MRI that reveals a cystic lesion containing Brain MRI that reveals a cystic lesion containing a dead parasite with surrounding vasogenic edema on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging. MRI is of a 16-year-old Guatemalan adolescent with first-time afebrile seizure and normal EEG, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and examination findings.
Previous
Next

Other Tests

Ocular cysticercosis

Funduscopic examination may show freely floating cysticerci in the anterior chamber and vitreous chamber and may provide visual identification of the movements and morphology of larval forms. Larvae may be found adhering to subretinal tissues.

Subretinal cysts are associated with vasculitis and edema.

Cysts in vitreous are associated with chorioretinitis and retinal detachment.

Previous
Next

Procedures

Excise or perform biopsy of subcutaneous nodules.

For skeletal cysticercosis, perform a biopsy or excision of the nodule and histologic examination of the cysticerci.

For neurocysticercosis, perform a lumbar puncture (see Lab Studies).

Previous
Next

Histologic Findings

Mature cysticerci are ellipsoidal, translucent, fluid-filled cysts, 1-2 cm in diameter. Younger cysticerci are smaller. A single dense white body can be seen through the membrane. The spiral canal of the cyst wall, which has a wavy appearance in most tissue preparations, is most frequently observed in biopsy specimens. The wall, which is 100-200 micrometers wide, is characterized by an internal parenchymal layer of longitudinal and circular muscle, a middle layer of pseudoepithelial cells, and an outer cuticular layer composed of a dentate membrane with a microvillus projection that interfaces with host tissues. The scolex region is thickened and more organized. Cross sections of the scolex appear as several layers of folded smooth muscles, which may contain parts of the suckers or hooklets.

The parasite is surrounded by an adventitia of host tissue reaction. A scant local cellular reaction that consists of some eosinophils and macrophages surrounds live cysticerci; dead cysticerci are surrounded by a dense inflammatory infiltrate that consists of the entire spectrum of inflammatory cells, including multinucleated giant macrophages.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Sowmya Nanjappa, MD Assistant Member, Department of Internal Medicine, Moffitt Cancer Center; Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Oncologic Sciences (Joint Appointment), University of South Florida Morsani College of Medicine

Sowmya Nanjappa, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Society of Hospital Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Ashir Kumar, MD, MBBS FAAP, Professor Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine

Ashir Kumar, MD, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Leslie L Barton, MD Professor Emerita of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine

Leslie L Barton, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Association of Pediatric Program Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Michael D Nissen, MBBS, FRACP, FRCPA Associate Professor in Biomolecular, Biomedical Science & Health, Griffith University; Director of Infectious Diseases and Unit Head of Queensland Paediatric Infectious Laboratory, Sir Albert Sakzewski Viral Research Centre, Royal Children's Hospital

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Ito A, Wandra T, Sato MO, et al. Towards the international collaboration for detection, surveillance and control of taeniasis/ cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Asia and the Pacific. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006. 37 Suppl 3:82-90. [Medline].

  2. Craig P, Ito A. Intestinal cestodes. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct. 20(5):524-32. [Medline].

  3. Brunetti E, White AC Jr. Cestode infestations: hydatid disease and cysticercosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012 Jun. 26(2):421-35. [Medline].

  4. Sorvillo F, Wilkins P, Shafir S, Eberhard M. Public health implications of cysticercosis acquired in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jan. 17(1):1-6. [Medline].

  5. O'Neal S, Noh J, Wilkins P, Keene W, Lambert W, Anderson J. Taenia solium Tapeworm Infection, Oregon, 2006-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jun. 17(6):1030-6. [Medline].

  6. Croker C, Soriano J, Civen R, Larsen RA, Schwartz B, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Jan 30. 64 (3):74. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. O'Keefe KA, Eberhard ML, Shafir SC, Wilkins P, Ash LR, Sorvillo FJ. Cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998-2011. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Feb. 92 (2):354-9. [Medline].

  8. Del Brutto OH. Neurocysticercosis. Semin Neurol. 2005 Sep. 25(3):243-51. [Medline].

  9. Kanobana K, Praet N, Kabwe C, Dorny P, Lukanu P, Madinga J, et al. High prevalence of Taenia solium cysticerosis in a village community of Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo. Int J Parasitol. 2011 Aug 15. 41(10):1015-8. [Medline].

  10. O'Neal SE, Townes JM, Wilkins PP, Noh JC, Lee D, Rodriguez S. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Taenia solium Cysticerci among Refugees Resettled in United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Mar. 18(3):431-8. [Medline].

  11. Lee MK, Hong SJ, Kim HR. Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2010 Sep. 25(9):1272-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  12. Anantaphruti MT, Okamoto M, Yoonuan T, et al. Molecular and serological survey on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Parasitol Int. 2010 Sep. 59(3):326-30. [Medline].

  13. Youn H. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2009 Oct. 47 Suppl:S133-41. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  14. Carabin H, Millogo A, Praet N, et al. Seroprevalence to the antigens of Taenia solium cysticercosis among residents of three villages in Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009 Nov 24. 3(11):e555. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  15. Fleury A, Carrillo-Mezo R, Flisser A, Sciutto E, Corona T. Subarachnoid basal neurocysticercosis: a focus on the most severe form of the disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Jan. 9(1):123-33. [Medline].

  16. Carpio A. Neurocysticercosis: an update. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Dec. 2(12):751-62. [Medline].

  17. Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH. Neurocysticercosis: updated concepts about an old disease. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Oct. 4(10):653-61. [Medline].

  18. Del Brutto OH, Salgado P, Lama J, Del Brutto VJ, Campos X, Zambrano M, et al. Calcified neurocysticercosis associates with hippocampal atrophy: a population-based study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jan. 92 (1):64-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  19. Morales NM, Agapejev S, Morales RR, Padula NA, Lima MM. Clinical aspects of neurocysticercosis in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2000 Apr. 22(4):287-91. [Medline].

  20. Cárdenas G, Jung H, Ríos C, Fleury A, Soto-Hernández JL. Severe cysticercal meningitis: clinical and imaging characteristics. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jan. 82(1):121-5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  21. Michelet L, Fleury A, Sciutto E, Kendjo E, Fragoso G, Paris L, et al. Human neurocysticercosis: comparison of different diagnostic tests using cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jan. 49(1):195-200. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  22. Lee YM, Handali S, Hancock K, Pattabhi S, Kovalenko VA, Levin A, et al. Serologic diagnosis of human Taenia solium cysticercosis by using recombinant and synthetic antigens in QuickELISA™. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Apr. 84(4):587-93. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  23. Kumar A, Goenka AH, Choudhary A, Sahu JK, Gulati S. Disseminated cysticercosis in a child: whole-body MR diagnosis with the use of parallel imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 2010 Feb. 40(2):223-7. [Medline].

  24. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system: how should it be managed?. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Oct. 24(5):423-7. [Medline].

  25. Mazumdar M, Pandharipande P, Poduri A. Does albendazole affect seizure remission and computed tomography response in children with neurocysticercosis? A Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Child Neurol. 2007 Feb. 22(2):135-42. [Medline].

  26. Garcia HH, Lescano AG, Lanchote VL, Pretell EJ, Gonzales I, Bustos JA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of combined treatment with praziquantel and albendazole in neurocysticercosis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jul. 72(1):77-84. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  27. Garcia HH, Gonzales I, Lescano AG, Bustos JA, Zimic M, Escalante D, et al. Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Aug. 14 (8):687-95. [Medline].

  28. Kelesidis T, Thian N. Multiple Intraventricular Neurocysticercal Cysts Treated with Endoscopy without Antiparasitic Therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jul. 85(1):1-2. [Medline].

  29. Verma R, Sharma P, Khurana N. Thousands of lesions in disseminated cysticercosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Oct. 85(4):583. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  30. American Academy of Pediatrics. Tapeworm Diseases (Taeniasis and Cysticercosis). Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009. 652-4.

  31. Cysticercosis. Spector JM, Gibson TE. Atlas of Pediatrics in the Tropics and Resource-Limited Settings. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009. 73-76.

  32. Barton Behravesh C, Mayberry LF, Bristol JR, et al. Population-based survey of taeniasis along the United States-Mexico border. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008 Jun. 102(4):325-33. [Medline].

  33. Botero D, Tanowitz HB, Weiss LM, Wittner M. Taeniasis and cysticercosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1993 Sep. 7(3):683-97. [Medline].

  34. Carabin H, Budke CM, Cowan LD, Willingham AL 3rd, Torgerson PR. Methods for assessing the burden of parasitic zoonoses: echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Trends Parasitol. 2005 Jul. 21(7):327-33. [Medline].

  35. Conlan J, Khounsy S, Inthavong P, Fenwick S, Blacksell S, Thompson RC. A review of taeniasis and cysticercosis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Parasitol Int. 2008 Sep. 57(3):252-5. [Medline].

  36. Conlan JV, Vongxay K, Khamlome B, Dorny P, Sripa B, Elliot A, et al. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Aug. 87(2):281-91. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  37. Croker C, Reporter R, Mascola L. Use of statewide hospital discharge data to evaluate the economic burden of neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (1991-2008). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jul. 83(1):106-10. [Medline].

  38. DeGiorgio CM, Sorvillo F, Escueta SP. Neurocysticercosis in the United States: review of an important emerging infection. Neurology. 2005 Apr 26. 64(8):1486; author reply 1486. [Medline].

  39. Del Brutto OH. Neurocysticercosis in a 2-year-old boy infected at home. Pathog Glob Health. 2012 May. 106(2):122-3. [Medline].

  40. Drimousis PG, Stamou KM, Koutras A, Tsekouras DK, Zografos G. Unusual site of recurrent musculoskeletal hydatid cyst: case report and brief review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep 14. 12(34):5577-8. [Medline].

  41. Fleury A, Hernandez M, Avila M, et al. Detection of HP10 antigen in serum for diagnosis and follow-up of subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Sep. 78(9):970-4. [Medline].

  42. Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Mar. 14(1):97-119, ix. [Medline].

  43. Garcia HH, Del Brutto OH, Nash TE, et al. New concepts in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jan. 72(1):3-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  44. Garcia HH, Evans CA, Nash TE, et al. Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Oct. 15(4):747-56. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  45. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Evans CA, et al. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Lancet. 2003 Aug 16. 362(9383):547-56. [Medline].

  46. Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Gilman RH, Cysticerosis Working Group in Peru. Diagnosis, treatment and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003 Oct. 16(5):411-9. [Medline].

  47. Garcia HH, Moro PL, Schantz PM. Zoonotic helminth infections of humans: echinococcosis, cysticercosis and fascioliasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007 Oct. 20(5):489-494. [Medline].

  48. Garcia LS, Bruckner DA. Intestinal cestodes. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology. 3rd ed. 1997. 308-24.

  49. Garg RK. Neurocysticercosis: a pictorial review. Infect Dis Clin Pract. July 2008. 16(4):210-7.

  50. Gerber JS, Shah SS. Picture of the month. Neurocysticercosis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Oct. 160(10):1081. [Medline].

  51. Gonzalez AE, Bustos JA, Jimenez JA, Rodriguez ML, Ramirez MG, Gilman RH, et al. Efficacy of diverse antiparasitic treatments for cysticercosis in the pig model. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Aug. 87(2):292-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  52. Graeff-Teixeira C, da Silva AC, Yoshimura K. Update on eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and its clinical relevance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 Apr. 22(2):322-48, Table of Contents. [Medline].

  53. Hawk MW, Shahlaie K, Kim KD, Theis JH. Neurocysticercosis: a review. Surg Neurol. 2005 Feb. 63(2):123-32; discussion 132. [Medline].

  54. Hidron A, Vogenthaler N, Santos-Preciado JI, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Franco-Paredes C, Rassi A Jr. Cardiac involvement with parasitic infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Apr. 23(2):324-49. [Medline].

  55. Homans J, Khoo L, Chen T, et al. Spinal intramedullary cysticercosis in a five-year-old child: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Sep. 20(9):904-8. [Medline].

  56. Ito A, Takayanagui OM, Sako Y, et al. Neurocysticercosis: clinical manifestation, neuroimaging, serology and molecular confirmation of histopathologic specimens. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006. 37 Suppl 3:74-81. [Medline].

  57. Kaur S, Singhi P, Singhi S, Khandelwal N. Combination therapy with albendazole and praziquantel versus albendazole alone in children with seizures and single lesion neurocysticercosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 May. 28(5):403-6. [Medline].

  58. Kraft R. Cysticercosis: an emerging parasitic disease. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Jul 1. 76(1):91-6. [Medline].

  59. Leonard R, Adickes ED, Brumback RA. Neurocysticercosis. J Child Neurol. 2006 Jul. 21(7):589-90. [Medline].

  60. Loos-Frank B. An up-date of Verster's (1969) 'Taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus' (Cestoda) in table format. Syst Parasitol. 2000 Mar. 45(3):155-83. [Medline].

  61. Lucato LT, Guedes MS, Sato JR, Bacheschi LA, Machado LR, Leite CC. The role of conventional MR imaging sequences in the evaluation of neurocysticercosis: impact on characterization of the scolex and lesion burden. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Sep. 28(8):1501-4. [Medline].

  62. Mandell GH, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 6th ed. Churchill Livingstone; 2005.

  63. Millogo A, Nitiéma P, Carabin H, Boncoeur-Martel MP, Rajshekhar V, Tarnagda Z, et al. Prevalence of neurocysticercosis among people with epilepsy in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Epilepsia. 2012 Dec. 53(12):2194-202. [Medline].

  64. Mishra D. Cysticercosis headache: an important differential of childhood headache disorder in endemic countries. Headache. 2007 Feb. 47(2):301-2. [Medline].

  65. Mwape KE, Phiri IK, Praet N, Muma JB, Zulu G, Van den Bossche P, et al. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012. 6(3):e1594. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  66. Nash TE, Pretell EJ, Lescano AG, Bustos JA, Gilman RH, Gonzalez AE, et al. Perilesional brain oedema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis: a prospective cohort and nested case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Dec. 7(12):1099-105. [Medline].

  67. Nash TE, Singh G, White AC, et al. Treatment of neurocysticercosis: current status and future research needs. Neurology. 2006 Oct 10. 67(7):1120-7. [Medline].

  68. Pineda T, Eckstein C, Diethelm G, Cure J. Neurocysticercosis. Headache. 2007 May. 47(5):717-8. [Medline].

  69. Praet N, Rodriguez-Hidalgo R, Speybroeck N, Ahounou S, Benitez-Ortiz W, Berkvens D. Infection with versus exposure to Taenia solium: what do serological test results tell us?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Aug. 83(2):413-5. [Medline].

  70. Rosenblatt JE. Laboratory diagnosis of infections due to blood and tissue parasites. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 1. 49(7):1103-8. [Medline].

  71. Salim L, Ang A, Handali S, Tsang VC. Seroepidemiologic survey of cysticercosis-taeniasis in four central highland districts of Papua, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Mar. 80(3):384-8. [Medline].

  72. Salinas R, Prasad K. WITHDRAWN: Drugs for treating neurocysticercosis (tapeworm infection of the brain). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1999. (4):CD000215. [Medline].

  73. Sandes AR, Mouzinho A, Valente P. Orbital cysticercosis: diagnosis and treatment controversies. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Feb. 26(2):180-1. [Medline].

  74. Sayasone S, Vonghajack Y, Vanmany M, Rasphone O, Tesana S, Utzinger J, et al. Diversity of human intestinal helminthiasis in Lao PDR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Mar. 103(3):247-54. [Medline].

  75. Schantz PM. Tapeworms (cestodiasis). Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996 Sep. 25(3):637-53. [Medline].

  76. Serpa JA, Moran A, Goodman JC, Giordano TP, White AC Jr. Neurocysticercosis in the HIV era: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Jul. 77(1):113-7. [Medline].

  77. Serpa JA, Yancey LS, White AC Jr. Advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006 Dec. 4(6):1051-61. [Medline].

  78. Shandera WX, Kass JS. Neurocysticercosis: current knowledge and advances. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2006 Nov. 6(6):453-9. [Medline].

  79. Sorvillo FJ, DeGiorgio C, Waterman SH. Deaths from cysticercosis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Feb. 13(2):230-5. [Medline].

  80. Steinmann P, Utzinger J, Du ZW, Jiang JY, Chen JX, Hattendorf J, et al. Efficacy of single-dose and triple-dose albendazole and mebendazole against soil-transmitted helminths and Taenia spp.: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2011. 6(9):e25003. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  81. Steinmann P, Zhou XN, Du ZW, et al. Tribendimidine and Albendazole for Treating Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia spp.: Open-Label Randomized Trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008. 2(10):e322. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  82. Venkatesh R, Ravindran RD, Bharathi B, Sengupta S. Optic nerve cysticercosis. Ophthalmology. 2008 Nov. 115(11):2094. [Medline].

  83. Verma A, Prasad KN, Gupta RK, Singh AK, Nyati KK, Rizwan A, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism and its association with symptomatic neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15. 202(8):1219-25. [Medline].

  84. Viola GM, White AC Jr, Serpa JA. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular events and neurocysticercosis: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Mar. 84(3):402-5. [Medline].

  85. Wallin MT, Kurtzke JF. Neurocysticercosis in the United States: review of an important emerging infection. Neurology. 2004 Nov 9. 63(9):1559-64. [Medline].

  86. Wani SA, Ahmad F, Zargar SA, Ahmad Z, Ahmad P, Tak H. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Srinagar City, Kashmir, India. J Parasitol. 2007 Dec. 93(6):1541-3. [Medline].

  87. Wani SA, Ahmad F, Zargar SA, Dar PA, Dar ZA, Jan TR. Intestinal helminths in a population of children from the Kashmir valley, India. J Helminthol. 2008 Dec. 82(4):313-7. [Medline].

  88. Webbe G. Human cysticercosis: parasitology, pathology, clinical manifestations and available treatment. Pharmacol Ther. 1994 Oct. 64(1):175-200. [Medline].

  89. Weisse ME, Raszka WV Jr. Cestode infection in children. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis. 1996. 12:109-53. [Medline].

  90. White AC Jr. Why are there seizures in neurocysticercosis: is it in the genes?. J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15. 202(8):1152-3. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Brain MRI that reveals a cystic lesion containing a dead parasite with surrounding vasogenic edema on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging. MRI is of a 16-year-old Guatemalan adolescent with first-time afebrile seizure and normal EEG, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and examination findings.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.