Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Pediatric Toxocariasis Follow-up

  • Author: Germaine L Defendi, MD, MS, FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: Mar 10, 2015
 

Further Outpatient Care

The therapeutic responses of patients with VLM are evaluated clinically and by following peripheral blood eosinophil counts. Toxocara titers may not reflect the response to treatment.

Follow-up of OLM relies on the recommendations of the treating ophthalmologist. The evaluation of vitreous anti-Toxocara titers is a practical way of diagnosing, but not monitoring, the treatment response.

The signs and symptoms of covert toxocariasis lack specificity. Diagnosis may be confirmed by the disappearance of symptoms after anthelmintic treatment. If the patient's symptoms do not improve after treatment, expand on the differential diagnosis.

Next

Deterrence/Prevention

See the list below:

  • The prevalence of human toxocariasis is a reflection of dogs' rates of infestation and their access to public places. Proper disposal of dog and cat feces is essential to lower infection rates.
  • Prevention of toxocariasis is a public health issue and is important for both animals and humans.
    • In developed countries, prevention involves regulations that obligate pet owners to have veterinarians examine their pets for parasites. Anthelmintic treatment of puppies and kittens at age 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age prevents the excretion of Toxocara eggs by mature worms acquired transplacentally or through mother’s milk. Regular deworming of dogs and cats during annual veterinary visits.
    • Restricting dogs from assessing places, such as playgrounds, where children may come in contact with animal excrement.
    • Pet owners should to clean up after their pets, to properly dispose of waste, and to clean pet play areas of waste, weekly. Encourage children not to play in areas where animals defecate.
    • Covering children’s sandboxes when not in use to prevent pet access.
    • Foster and model good hygiene practices, such as washing hands with soap and water after playing outside and/or playing with pets.[33]
  • In underdeveloped countries, the situation is more complex due to poor basic sanitation infrastructure, such as access to clean water and functional sewage systems.
Previous
Next

Complications

Complications depend on the human organ sites to which the larvae migrate.

Previous
Next

Prognosis

In general, the prognosis for VLM and covert toxocariasis is good.

Prognosis in OLM depends on the pathology at the time of diagnosis. Blindness, usually unilateral, can result.

Previous
Next

Patient Education

Proper hygiene and sanitation are probably the least expensive and most effective means of reducing parasitic diseases.

In countries in which the creation of good water and sewer systems is unrealistic, every effort should be made to educate the citizens about basic sanitation to diminish the rates of parasitic diseases.

Previous
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Germaine L Defendi, MD, MS, FAAP Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center

Germaine L Defendi, MD, MS, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Ashir Kumar, MD, MBBS FAAP, Professor Emeritus, Department of Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine

Ashir Kumar, MD, MBBS is a member of the following medical societies: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Leslie L Barton, MD Professor Emerita of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine

Leslie L Barton, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Association of Pediatric Program Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Marcelo Laufer, MD Attending Physician, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Miami Children's Hospital

Marcelo Laufer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics and Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Mazur-Melewska K, Mania A, Figlerowicz M, Kemnitz P, Sluzewski W, Michalak M. The influence of age on a clinical presentation of Toxocara spp. infection in children. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012. 19(2):233-6. [Medline].

  2. Knopp S, Steinmann P, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012 Jun. 26(2):341-58. [Medline].

  3. Maruyama H, Nawa Y, Noda S, et al. An outbreak of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum in Kyushu, Japan. Lancet. 1996 Jun 22. 347(9017):1766-7. [Medline].

  4. Congdon P, Lloyd P. Toxocara infection in the United States: the relevance of poverty, geography and demography as risk factors, and implications for estimating county prevalence. Int J Public Health. 2011 Feb. 56(1):15-24. [Medline].

  5. Red Book. Toxocariasis. 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics. 2009. 666-67.

  6. Turrientes MC, Perez de Ayala A, Norman F, Navarro M, Perez-Molina JA, Rodriquez-Ferrer M, et al. Visceral larva migrans in immigrants from latin america. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jul. 17(7):1263-5. [Medline].

  7. Nkouawa A, Sako Y, Itoh S, et al. Serological studies of neurologic helminthic infections in rural areas of southwest cameroon: toxocariasis, cysticercosis and paragonimiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Jul 6. 4(7):e732. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  8. Colli CM, Rubinsky-Elefant G, Paludo ML, et al. Serological, clinical and epidemiological evaluation of toxocariasis in urban areas of south Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010 Apr. 52(2):69-74. [Medline].

  9. Espinoza YA, Huapaya PE, Roldan WH, et al. Seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Andean communities from the Northeast of Lima, Peru. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010 Feb. 52(1):31-6. [Medline].

  10. Liao CW, Sukati H, D'Lamini P, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection among children in Swaziland, southern Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010 Jan. 104(1):73-80. [Medline].

  11. Akdemir C. Visceral larva migrans among children in Kütahya (Turkey) and an evaluation of playgrounds for T. canis eggs. Turk J Pediatr. 2010 Mar-Apr. 52(2):158-62. [Medline].

  12. Elshazly AM, Attia G, El-Ghareeb AS, Belal US. Clinical varieties of Toxocariasis canis in Children's Hospital, Mansoura University: is it an underestimated problem?. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011 Aug. 41(2):263-74. [Medline].

  13. Kanobana K, Vereecken K, Junco Diaz R, Sariego I, Rojas L, Bonet Gorbea M, et al. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and asthma: a study in Cuban schoolchildren. Trop Med Int Health. 2013 Feb 8. [Medline].

  14. Sariego I, Kanobana K, Junco R, Vereecken K, Núñez FA, Polman K, et al. Frequency of antibodies to Toxocara in Cuban schoolchildren. Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Jun. 17(6):711-4. [Medline].

  15. Pinelli E, Herremans T, Harms MG, Hoek D, Kortbeek LM. Toxocara and Ascaris seropositivity among patients suspected of visceral and ocular larva migrans in the Netherlands: trends from 1998 to 2009. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011 Jul. 30(7):873-9. [Medline].

  16. Lynch NR, Eddy K, Hodgen AN, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in tropical Venezuela. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988. 82(2):275-81. [Medline].

  17. Cassenote AJ, Lima AR, Pinto Neto JM, Rubinsky-Elefant G. Seroprevalence and modifiable risk factors for Toxocara spp. in Brazilian schoolchildren. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May. 8(5):e2830. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  18. Oski FA, et al. Protozoan Parasites. Toxocariasis. Principles and Practices of Pediatrics. 2nd edition. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1994. 1405-08.

  19. Hurni MA, Gerbig AW, Braathen LR, Hunziker T. Toxocariasis and Wells' syndrome: a causal relationship?. Dermatology. 1997. 195(4):325-8. [Medline].

  20. Wolfrom E, Chene G, Lejoly-Boisseau H, Beylot C, Geniaux M, Taieb A. [Chronic urticaria and toxocara canis infection. A case-control study]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1996. 123(4):240-6. [Medline].

  21. Bachmeyer C, Lamarque G, Morariu R, et al. Visceral larva migrans mimicking lymphoma. Chest. 2003 Apr. 123(4):1296-7. [Medline].

  22. Amir J, Harel L, Eidlitz-Markus T, Varsano I. Lymphedema as a presenting sign of toxocariasis. Infection. 1995 Nov-Dec. 23(6):389-90. [Medline].

  23. Cruz AT, Franklin GY, Kaplan SL. Toxocariasis Causing Eosinophilic Ascites. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Apr 23. 27(6):563-4. [Medline].

  24. Hamidou MA, Gueglio B, Cassagneau E, et al. Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with Toxocara canis infection. J Rheumatol. 1999 Feb. 26(2):443-5. [Medline].

  25. De Cock C, Lemaitre J, Deuvaert FE. Loeffler endomyocarditis: a clinical presentation as right ventricular tumor. J Heart Valve Dis. 1998 Nov. 7(6):668-71. [Medline].

  26. Herry I, Philippe B, Hennequin C, et al. Acute life-threatening toxocaral tamponade. Chest. 1997 Dec. 112(6):1692-3. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  27. Tobin EH, Zhang J, Maton B. Meningoencephalitis and visceral larva migrans in a woman with intense exposure to cats. Infect Dis Clin Pract. May, 2011. 19(3):221-2.

  28. Salvador S, Ribeiro R, Winckler MI, Ohlweiler L, Riesgo R. Pediatric neurotoxocariasis with concomitant cerebral, cerebellar, and peripheral nervous system involvement: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2010 Nov-Dec. 86(6):531-4. [Medline].

  29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ocular toxocariasis--United States, 2009-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jun 10. 60(22):734-6. [Medline].

  30. Ocular toxocariasis--United States, 2009-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jun 10. 60(22):734-6. [Medline].

  31. Oski FA, et al. Ambulatory Pediatrics. Endophthalmitis. Principles and Practices of Pediatrics. 2nd edition. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott; 1994. 888.

  32. Stewart JM, Cubillan LD, Cunningham ET. Prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina. 2005 Dec. 25(8):1005-13. [Medline].

  33. Woodhall D. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at http://www2c.cdc.gov/podcasts/media/pdf/COCA_Toxocariasis.pdf. Accessed: February 4, 2015.

  34. Abo-Shehada MN, Sharif L, el-Sukhon SN, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis antibodies in humans in northern Jordan. J Helminthol. 1992 Mar. 66(1):75-8. [Medline].

  35. Agudelo C, Villareal E, Caceres E, et al. Human and dogs Toxocara canis infection in a poor neighborhood in Bogota. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1990 Jan-Mar. 85(1):75-8. [Medline].

  36. Akao N, Ohta N. Toxocariasis in Japan. Parasitol Int. 2007 Jun. 56(2):87-93. [Medline].

  37. Altcheh J, Nallar M, Conca M, et al. [Toxocariasis: clinical and laboratory features in 54 patients]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2003 May. 58(5):425-31. [Medline].

  38. American Academy of Pediatrics. Toxocariasis (Visceral Larva Migrans, Ocular Larva Migrans). Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009. 666-7.

  39. Arango CA. Visceral larva migrans and the hypereosinophilia syndrome. South Med J. 1998 Sep. 91(9):882-3. [Medline].

  40. Arpino C, Gattinara GC, Piergili D, Curatolo P. Toxocara infection and epilepsy in children: a case-control study. Epilepsia. 1990 Jan-Feb. 31(1):33-6. [Medline].

  41. Ashwath ML, Robinson DR, Katner HP. A presumptive case of toxocariasis associated with eosinophilic pleural effusion: case report and literature review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec. 71(6):764. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  42. Toxocariasis. Spector JM, Gibson TE. Atlas of Pediatrics in the Tropics and Resource-Limited Settings. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009. 249-251.

  43. Baldisserotto M, Conchin CF, Soares Mda G, et al. Ultrasound findings in children with toxocariasis: report on 18 cases. Pediatr Radiol. 1999 May. 29(5):316-9. [Medline].

  44. Bass JL, Mehta KA, Glickman LT, et al. Asymptomatic toxocariasis in children. A prospective study and treatment trial. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1987 Sep. 26(9):441-6. [Medline].

  45. Bede O, Szénási Z, Danka J, Gyurkovits K, Nagy D. Toxocariasis associated with chronic cough in childhood: a longitudinal study in Hungary. J Helminthol. 2008 Dec. 82(4):357-63. [Medline].

  46. Beiran I, Cochavi O, Miller B. "Silent" ocular toxocariasis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1998 Jul-Sep. 8(3):195-6. [Medline].

  47. Buijs J, Borsboom G, van Gemund JJ, et al. Toxocara seroprevalence in 5-year-old elementary schoolchildren: relation with allergic asthma. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Nov 1. 140(9):839-47. [Medline].

  48. Carvalho EA, Rocha RL. Toxocariasis: visceral larva migrans in children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2011 Mar-Apr. 87(2):100-10. [Medline].

  49. Chang S, Lim JH, Choi D, et al. Hepatic visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis: CT and sonographic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Dec. 187(6):W622-9. [Medline].

  50. Cianferoni A, Schneider L, Schantz PM, et al. Visceral larva migrans associated with earthworm ingestion: clinical evolution in an adolescent patient. Pediatrics. 2006 Feb. 117(2):e336-9. [Medline].

  51. Cilla G, Perez-Trallero E, Gutierrez C, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in middle-class and disadvantaged children in northern Spain (Gipuzkoa, Basque Country). Eur J Epidemiol. 1996 Oct. 12(5):541-3. [Medline].

  52. Dauriac-Le Masson V, Chochon F, Demeret S, Pierrot-Deseilligny C. Toxocara canis meningomyelitis. J Neurol. 2005 Oct. 252(10):1267-8. [Medline].

  53. Despommier D. Toxocariasis: clinical aspects, epidemiology, medical ecology, and molecular aspects. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003 Apr. 16(2):265-72. [Medline].

  54. Eberhard ML, Alfano E. Adult Toxocara cati infections in U.S. children: report of four cases. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Sep. 59(3):404-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  55. Eberhardt O, Bialek R, Nagele T, Dichgans J. Eosinophilic meningomyelitis in toxocariasis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005 Aug. 107(5):432-8. [Medline].

  56. Elefant GR, Shimizu SH, Sanchez MC, et al. A serological follow-up of toxocariasis patients after chemotherapy based on the detection of IgG, IgA, and IgE antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Lab Anal. 20(4):164-72. [Medline].

  57. Fenoy S, Cuellar C, Guillen JL. Serological evidence of toxocariasis in patients from Spain with a clinical suspicion of visceral larva migrans. J Helminthol. 1997 Mar. 71(1):9-12. [Medline].

  58. Fenoy S, Cuellar C, Guillen JL. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children and adults in Madrid and Tenerife, Spain. J Helminthol. 1996 Jun. 70(2):109-13. [Medline].

  59. Fortenberry JD, Kenney RD, Younger J. Visceral larva migrans producing static encephalopathy in an infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 May. 10(5):403-6. [Medline].

  60. Frazier M, Anderson ML, Sophocleous S. Treatment of ocular toxocariasis with albendezole: a case report. Optometry. 2009 Apr. 80(4):175-80. [Medline].

  61. Gavignet B, Piarroux R, Aubin F, Millon L, Humbert P. Cutaneous manifestations of human toxocariasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Dec. 59(6):1031-42. [Medline].

  62. Glickman LT, Schantz PM. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of zoonotic toxocariasis. Epidemiol Rev. 1981. 3:230-50. [Medline].

  63. Good B, Holland CV, Taylor MR, et al. Ocular toxocariasis in schoolchildren. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15. 39(2):173-8. [Medline].

  64. Gotistein B, Piarroux R. Current trends in tissue-affecting helminths. Parasite. 2008 Sep. 15(3):291-8. [Medline].

  65. Gould IM, Newell S, Green SH, George RH. Toxocariasis and eosinophilic meningitis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Nov 2. 291(6504):1239-40. [Medline].

  66. Graeff-Teixeira C, da Silva AC, Yoshimura K. Update on eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and its clinical relevance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 Apr. 22(2):322-48, Table of Contents. [Medline].

  67. Guneratne R, Mendis D, Bandara T, Fernando SD. Toxoplasma, toxocara and tuberculosis co-infection in a four year old child. BMC Pediatr. 2011 May 26. 11:44. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  68. Havasiova K, Dubinsky P, Stefancikova A. A seroepidemiological study of human Toxocara infection in the Slovak Republic. J Helminthol. 1993 Dec. 67(4):291-6. [Medline].

  69. Hayashi K, Tahara H, Yamashita K, et al. Hepatic imaging studies on patients with visceral larva migrans due to probable Ascaris suum infection. Abdom Imaging. 1999 Sep-Oct. 24(5):465-9. [Medline].

  70. Heldrich FJ, Garg PP. Eosinophilic meningitis. Md Med J. 1988 Feb. 37(2):138-40. [Medline].

  71. Hill IR, Denham DA, Scholtz CL. Toxocara canis larvae in the brain of a British child. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1985. 79(3):351-4. [Medline].

  72. Humbert P, Niezborala M, Salembier R, et al. Skin manifestations associated with toxocariasis: a case-control study. Dermatology. 2000. 201(3):230-4. [Medline].

  73. Iddawela RD, Rajapakse RP, Perera NA, Agatsuma T. Characterization of a Toxocara canis species-specific excretory-secretory antigen (TcES-57) and development of a double sandwich ELISA for diagnosis of visceral larva migrans. Korean J Parasitol. 2007 Mar. 45(1):19-26. [Medline].

  74. Inan M, Sakru N, Vatansever U, Bilgi S. Visceral larva migrans presenting as acute abdomen in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 41(3):e7-9. [Medline].

  75. Inatomi Y, Murakami T, Tokunaga M, et al. Encephalopathy caused by visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum. J Neurol Sci. 1999 Apr 1. 164(2):195-9. [Medline].

  76. Jain R, Sawhney S, Bhargava DK, et al. Hepatic granulomas due to visceral larva migrans in adults: appearance on US and MRI. Abdom Imaging. 1994 May-Jun. 19(3):253-6. [Medline].

  77. Jeanfaivre T, Cimon B, Tolstuchow N, et al. Pleural effusion and toxocariasis. Thorax. 1996 Jan. 51(1):106-7. [Medline].

  78. Kaushik SP, Hurwitz M, McDonald C, Pavli P. Toxocara canis infection and granulomatous hepatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997 Jul. 92(7):1223-5. [Medline].

  79. Kayes SG. Human toxocariasis and the visceral larva migrans syndrome: correlative immunopathology. Chem Immunol. 1997. 66:99-124. [Medline].

  80. Kraus A, Valencia X, Cabral AR, de la Vega G. Visceral larva migrans mimicking rheumatic diseases. J Rheumatol. 1995 Mar. 22(3):497-500. [Medline].

  81. Krcmery V Jr, Gould I, Sobota K, Spanik S. Two cases of disseminated toxocariasis in compromised hosts successfully treated with mebendazole. Chemotherapy. 1992. 38(5):367-8. [Medline].

  82. Kumar J, Kimm J. MR in Toxocara canis myelopathy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994 Nov. 15(10):1918-20. [Medline].

  83. Lassmann B, Tsigrelis C, Virk A. 33-year-old woman with marked eosinophilia. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Jan. 82(1):103-6. [Medline].

  84. Li MW, Lin RQ, Song HQ, Wu XY, Zhu XQ. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance. BMC Genomics. 2008 May 16. 9:224. [Medline].

  85. Lim JH. Toxocariasis of the liver: visceral larva migrans. Abdom Imaging. 2008 Mar-Apr. 33(2):151-6. [Medline].

  86. Ljungstrom I. Toxocara canis. Akuffo H, Linder E, Ljungstrom I, Wahlgren M. Parasites of the Colder Climates. London and New York: Taylor & Francis; 2003. 187-194.

  87. Magnaval JF, Galindo V, Glickman LT, Clanet M. Human Toxocara infection of the central nervous system and neurological disorders: a case-control study. Parasitology. 1997 Nov. 115(Pt 5):537-43. [Medline].

  88. Matos M de F, Militao DN, Brum MA, et al. Presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children selected at Hospital Universitario, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1997 Jan-Feb. 39(1):49-50. [Medline].

  89. Matsuki Y, Fujii T, Nakamura-Uchiyama F, et al. Toxocariasis presenting with multiple effusions in the pericardial space, thoracic cavity, and Morrison's pouch. Intern Med. 2007. 46(12):913-4. [Medline].

  90. Mikhael NZ, Montpetit VJ, Orizaga M, et al. Toxocara canis infestation with encephalitis. Can J Neurol Sci. 1974 May. 1(2):114-20. [Medline].

  91. Mimoso MG, Pereira MC, Estevao MH, et al. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Toxocara canis. Eur J Pediatr. 1993 Sep. 152(9):783-4. [Medline].

  92. Moiyadi A, Mahadevan A, Anandh B, et al. Visceral larva migrans presenting as multiple intracranial and intraspinal abscesses. Neuropathology. 2007 Aug. 27(4):371-4. [Medline].

  93. Monsel G, Caumes E. Recent developments in dermatological syndromes in returning travelers. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008 Oct. 21(5):495-9. [Medline].

  94. Montalvo AM, Espino AM, Escalante G, Finlay CM. [Study of the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in an infantile population in the City of Havana]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1994. 46(3):156-8. [Medline].

  95. Moreira-Silva SF, Leao ME, Mendonca HF, Pereira FE. Prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in a random sample of inpatients at a children's hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1998 Jul-Aug. 40(4):259-61. [Medline].

  96. Murray MG, Bahna SL. Allergy consult for eosinophilia in an infant. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012 Jul-Aug. 33(4):370-3. [Medline].

  97. Nathwani D, Laing RB, Currie PF. Covert toxocariasis--a cause of recurrent abdominal pain in childhood. Br J Clin Pract. 1992 Winter. 46(4):271. [Medline].

  98. Nelson S, Greene T, Ernhart CB. Toxocara canis infection in preschool age children: risk factors and the cognitive development of preschool children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1996 Mar-Apr. 18(2):167-74. [Medline].

  99. Ota KV, Dimaras H, Héon E, Babyn PS, Yau YC, Read S, et al. Toxocariasis mimicking liver, lung, and spinal cord metastases from retinoblastoma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Mar. 28(3):252-4. [Medline].

  100. Oteifa NM, Moustafa MA, Elgozamy BM. Toxocariasis as a possible cause of allergic diseases in children. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1998 Aug. 28(2):365-72. [Medline].

  101. Patel H, Goldstein D. Pediatric uveitis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Feb. 50(1):125-36. [Medline].

  102. Petithory JC. [Immunologic diagnosis of ocular larva migrans syndrome]. Ophtalmologie. 1990 May-Jun. 4(3):298-300. [Medline].

  103. Rai SK, Uga S, Ono K, et al. Seroepidemiological study of Toxocara infection in Nepal. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996 Jun. 27(2):286-90. [Medline].

  104. Rayes AA, Lambertucci JR. Visceral larva migrans and pyogenic liver abscess. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Apr. 94(4):1116. [Medline].

  105. Reilly A, Becker J, Meyer J, Rackoff W. Hypereosinophilia [clinical conference]. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1992. 20(3):232-9. [Medline].

  106. Roig J, Romeu J, Riera C, et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia due to toxocariasis with bronchoalveolar lavage findings. Chest. 1992 Jul. 102(1):294-6. [Medline].

  107. Roldán WH, Espinoza YA. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 May. 104(3):411-8. [Medline].

  108. Romeu J, Roig J, Bada JL, et al. Adult human toxocariasis acquired by eating raw snails. J Infect Dis. 1991 Aug. 164(2):438. [Medline].

  109. Sabrosa NA, de Souza EC. Nematode infections of the eye: toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2001 Dec. 12(6):450-4. [Medline].

  110. Sabrosa NA, Zajdenweber M. Nematode infections of the eye: toxocariasis, onchocerciasis, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, and cysticercosis. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2002 Sep. 15(3):351-6. [Medline].

  111. Sakai S, Shida Y, Takahashi N, et al. Pulmonary lesions associated with visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum or Toxocara canis: imaging of six cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 186(6):1697-702. [Medline].

  112. Sane AC, Barber BA. Pulmonary nodules due to Toxocara canis infection in an immunocompetent adult. South Med J. 1997 Jan. 90(1):78-9. [Medline].

  113. Saporito L, Scarlata F, Colomba C, Infurnari L, Giordano S, Titone L. Human toxocariasis: a report of nine cases. Acta Paediatr. 2008 Sep. 97(9):1301-2. [Medline].

  114. Sharkey JA, McKay PS. Ocular toxocariasis in a patient with repeatedly negative ELISA titre to Toxocara canis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993 Apr. 77(4):253-4. [Medline].

  115. Small KW, McCuen BW 2d, de Juan E Jr, Machemer R. Surgical management of retinal traction caused by toxocariasis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989 Jul 15. 108(1):10-4. [Medline].

  116. Sturchler D, Schubarth P, Gualzata M, et al. Thiabendazole vs. albendazole in treatment of toxocariasis: a clinical trial. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989 Oct. 83(5):473-8. [Medline].

  117. Szczepanski T, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Janik-Moszant A, Olejnik I. Generalized lymphadenopathy as initial presentation of toxocariasis in a seven-year-old boy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1996 Aug. 15(8):717-8. [Medline].

  118. Taylor MR, Keane CT, O'Connor P, Mulvihill E, Holland C. The expanded spectrum of toxocaral disease. Lancet. 1988 Mar 26. 1(8587):692-5. [Medline].

  119. Taylor MR, O'Connor P, Hinson AR, Smith HV. Toxocara titres in maternal and cord blood. J Infect. 1996 May. 32(3):231-3. [Medline].

  120. Torgerson PR, Rosenheim K, Tanner I, Ziadinov I, Grimm F, Brunner M, et al. Echinococcosis, toxocarosis and toxoplasmosis screening in a rural community in eastern Kazakhstan. Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Mar. 14(3):341-8. [Medline].

  121. Uhlikova M, Hubner J. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection in Czech Republic. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1998 Aug. 6(3):195-8. [Medline].

  122. Vidal JE, Sztajnbok J, Seguro AC. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Toxocara canis: case report and review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Sep. 69(3):341-3. [Medline].

  123. Villano M, Cerillo A, Narciso N, et al. A rare case of Toxocara canis arachnoidea. J Neurosurg Sci. 1992 Jan-Mar. 36(1):67-9. [Medline].

  124. Walker MD, Zunt JR. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes. Semin Neurol. 2005 Sep. 25(3):252-61. [Medline].

  125. Walsh SS, Robson WJ, Hart CA. Acute transient myositis due to Toxocara. Arch Dis Child. 1988 Sep. 63(9):1087-8. [Medline].

  126. Wells DL. Public understanding of toxocariasis. Public Health. 2007 Mar. 121(3):187-8. [Medline].

  127. Wisniewska-Ligier M, Wozniakowska-Gesicka T, Sobolewska-Dryjanska J, Markiewicz-Józwiak A, Wieczorek M. Analysis of the course and treatment of toxocariasis in children-a long-term observation. Parasitol Res. 2012 Jun. 110(6):2363-71. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  128. Wolfrom E, Chene G, Boisseau H, et al. Chronic urticaria and Toxocara canis. Lancet. 1995 Jan 21. 345(8943):196. [Medline].

  129. Xinou E, Lefkopoulos A, Gelagoti M, et al. CT and MR imaging findings in cerebral toxocaral disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 Apr. 24(4):714-8. [Medline].

  130. Zachariah SB, Zachariah B, Varghese R. Neuroimaging studies of cerebral "visceral larva migrans" syndrome. J Neuroimaging. 1994 Jan. 4(1):39-40. [Medline].

  131. Zygulska-Mach H, Krukar-Baster K, Ziobrowski S. Ocular toxocariasis in children and youth. Doc Ophthalmol. 1993. 84(2):145-54. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Diagram of the Toxocara canis life cycle image. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Toxocara canis eggs are passed in dog feces, especially puppies' feces. Humans do not produce or excrete eggs; therefore, the presence of these eggs is not a diagnostic finding in human toxocariasis. The egg to the left is fertilized but not yet embryonated, whereas the egg to the right contains a well-developed larva. The latter egg is infectious if it is ingested by a human (frequently, a child). Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.