Trypanosomiasis Follow-up

Updated: Nov 23, 2021
  • Author: Germaine L Defendi, MD, MS, FAAP; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Follow-up

Further Outpatient Care

Observe infants born to seropositive mothers for at least 1 year.

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Further Inpatient Care

The clinical condition of the patient with trypanosomiasis dictates further inpatient care.

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Transfer

Transfer to another facility is appropriate when required specialists and services are unavailable locally.

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Deterrence/Prevention

Educate people in areas with endemic disease about how trypanosomiasis is spread and methods of prevention.

Inspect homes for presence of vectors and for measures that prevent vectors from entrance. If reduviid or triatomine insects are found, a thorough disinfection with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides can help keep the home vector free for about 2 years. Screens on windows and doors exclude the vectors. Improving the home by covering crevices and cracks significantly reduces triatomid insect infestation. 

Screen blood donors in areas of endemic disease with serologic tests.

Blood recipients in areas of endemic disease can be protected by treating donated blood with gentian violet. Gentian violet (250 mg/L blood, dilution of 1:4000 for 24 h at 4°C), an amphophilic cationic agent that acts photodynamically, has been used to kill the parasite in blood. Photoradiation of blood that contains gentian violet and ascorbate generates ascorbyl radicals and superoxide anions, which are potent trypanocides. Other agents that can be added to the blood to treat the infection include mepacrine, an antimalarial agent, and maprotiline, an antidepressant.

A vaccine likely would prove cost-effective. [66]

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Patient Education

The use of proper preventive measures when one travels to endemic areas should be emphasized.

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