Pediatric Asthma Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 08, 2019
  • Author: Girish D Sharma, MD, FCCP, FAAP; Chief Editor: Kenan Haver, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is pediatric asthma?

Which symptoms help to establish a diagnosis of pediatric asthma?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric asthma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of severe episodes of pediatric asthma?

What are the physical findings indicative of status asthmaticus with imminent respiratory arrest in pediatric asthma?

Which tests are performed in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What are the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines for pediatric asthma care?

Which control medications are used in the management of pediatric asthma?

Which relief medications are used in the management of pediatric asthma?

What is pediatric asthma?

What is the prevalence of pediatric asthma?

What is the economic impact of pediatric asthma?

Which organization has published treatment guidelines for pediatric asthma?

What is the role of airway inflammation in the pathophysiology of pediatric asthma?

What is the pathogenesis of pediatric asthma?

What is the pathophysiology of the early stages of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of pediatric asthma?

What is the hygiene hypothesis of the pathophysiology of pediatric asthma?

Which factors have been shown to reduce the prevalence of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of pediatric asthma?

Which loci have been identified as susceptible for asthma?

What is the role of the lipids in the pathogenesis of asthma?

Which early childhood factors may increase the risk for pediatric asthma?

What causes pediatric asthma?

What is the role of respiratory infections in the etiology of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of allergens and irritants in the etiology of pediatric asthma?

What triggers asthma attacks?

How does exercise trigger asthma attacks?

What significantly increase airway resistance and airway reactivity in the pathophysiology of pediatric asthma?

What causes nocturnal asthma?

What factors increase the risk for wheezing in pediatric asthma?

What is the prevalence of pediatric asthma?

What are the racial predilections for pediatric asthma?

How does the prevalence of pediatric asthma vary by sex?

In which age groups is pediatric asthma most prevalent?

What is the prognosis of pediatric asthma?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric asthma?

What is included in patient education for pediatric asthma?

What are the benefits of patient education for pediatric asthma?

Presentation

What are the diagnostic criteria for pediatric asthma?

Which factors may precipitate or aggravate symptoms of pediatric asthma?

Which conditions may affect precipitate or aggravate asthma?

What should be the focus of history for pediatric asthma?

What should be included in the family history for pediatric asthma?

What should be included in the history of exacerbations of pediatric asthma?

How is wheezing characterized in pediatric asthma?

How is coughing characterized in pediatric asthma?

What are the nonspecific symptoms of pediatric asthma?

How does the clinical presentation of pediatric asthma vary?

Which physical findings suggest pediatric asthma in the absence of an acute episode?

During an acute episode of pediatric asthma, what will determine the physical findings?

What are the characteristic physical findings during a mild episode of pediatric asthma?

What are the characteristic physical findings during a mild moderately severe episode of pediatric asthma?

What are the characteristic physical findings during a severe episode of pediatric asthma?

What are the characteristic physical findings of status asthmaticus with imminent respiratory arrest?

How is asthma severity defined?

What should be considered when staging pediatric asthma?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of pediatric asthma?

What are the differential diagnoses for Pediatric Asthma?

Workup

What are the diagnostic guidelines for pediatric asthma?

What is the accuracy of pulmonary function tests in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of spirometry in the diagnosis of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of plethysmography in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of exercise challenge testing in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of methacholine challenge testing in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of radiography in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of CT scanning in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of allergy testing in the evaluation of pediatric asthma?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of pediatric asthma?

Treatment

What are the goals of therapy for pediatric asthma?

How is the reduction in risk of pediatric asthma achieved?

Which dietary modifications may be beneficial in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What is the goal of long-term therapy for pediatric asthma?

What are the components of asthma care?

What is included in the assessment and monitoring of pediatric asthma?

What is include in patient education for pediatric asthma?

Which environmental factors and comorbidities must be controlled as part of the management of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of lansoprazole and inactivated influenza vaccine in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What is included in pharmacologic management of pediatric asthma?

What is the goal of pharmacologic treatment of pediatric asthma?

What is the stepwise approach to pharmacologic therapy for pediatric asthma?

What is the role of salmeterol in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What is the role of long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What are safety concerns regarding the use of long-acting beta2-agonist in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

How frequently is pediatric asthma treated with oral corticosteroids?

What is the efficacy of increased inhaled corticosteroid doses at the onset of asthma exacerbation in children?

What are the adverse effects of long-term use of high-dose steroids for the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What inhaler devices are currently used to deliver inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) for pediatric asthma?

What is the preferred device for delivery of medications in children younger than 4 years with pediatric asthma?

What is the role of valved holding chambers in the administration of medications for pediatric asthma?

What newer devices have been shown to be effective in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What are the treatment goals for acute severe asthmatic episodes (status asthmaticus) in pediatric asthma?

Which tests can help guide treatment for acute severe asthmatic episodes (status asthmaticus) in pediatric asthma?

Which factors suggest high risk in pediatric asthma?

Which specialist consultations may be beneficial in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

What is included in long-term monitoring of pediatric asthma?

What should be included in outpatient care for pediatric asthma?

What should be included in the ongoing evaluation of pediatric asthma?

What is the efficacy of monitoring in pediatric asthma?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of pediatric asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Monoclonal Antibodies, Anti-asthmatics are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergic Agents are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Combination Inhaled Steroids/Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Methylxanthines are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Leukotriene Modifiers are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Systemic Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Inhaled Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Nonracemic Form of the Beta2-Agonist Albuterol are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?

Which medications in the drug class Bronchodilators, Beta2-Agonists are used in the treatment of Pediatric Asthma?