Childhood Sleep Apnea Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 13, 2019
  • Author: Mary E Cataletto, MD; Chief Editor: Denise Serebrisky, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How is childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) characterized?

What are the signs and symptoms of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children?

How are the complications of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) categorized?

What is the only available tool for definitive workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which measures are provided by polysomnography in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of CPAP in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the pathophysiology of apneas and hypopneas in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the pathophysiology of upper airway obstruction in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How does the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) differ between children and adults?

What is the role of anatomic narrowing in the pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of mechanical dilating in the pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of muscle weakness in the pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of neural regulation in the pathophysiology of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What causes childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which disorders are associated with childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the prevalence of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the racial predilections of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the sexual predilections of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the prognosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the postsurgical prognosis of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is included in patient education about childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of abnormal breathing during sleep in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical history findings of restlessness suggest childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical history findings related to dreaming suggest childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical history findings related to enuresis suggest childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical history findings related to morning awakening suggest obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which behavior problems may suggest childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What causes daytime mouth breathing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is primary snoring differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which oral and maxillofacial findings are characteristic of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is included in the physical exam to evaluate childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which height and weight findings are characteristic of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which chest and back findings are characteristic of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which pulmonary findings are characteristic of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the common morbidities of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the adverse effects of sleep fragmentation due to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the adverse effects of the increased work of breathing due to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the adverse effects of alveolar hypoventilation due to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What are the adverse effects of intermittent hypoxemia due to childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

DDX

How do the symptoms of simple snoring differ from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is daytime somnolence differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is narcolepsy differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are hypnagogic hallucinations differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How is nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which sleep disorders are differentiated from childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the basis of polysomnography?

What are the differential diagnoses for Childhood Sleep Apnea?

Workup

What are the reference-range parameters for sleep study findings in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

How are pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale assessed in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which tests are performed in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of polysomnography in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of the apnea hypopnea index (API) in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of daytime nap studies in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of overnight oximetry in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of cine MRI in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of thyroid function tests in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of ECG and echocardiography in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of MRI of the brain in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which clinical studies may be beneficial in the workup of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which sleep study parameters are under investigation for assessment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Treatment

What is the role of adenotonsillectomy in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Why should patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) avoid certain drugs and alcohol?

Which medications are used in the treatment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of positive-pressure ventilation in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of oral appliances in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of nasal strips in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of sleeping position in the treatment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of nasal fluticasone in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of nasal steroids in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of adenotonsillectomy in the treatment of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is the role of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of tongue reduction in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of tracheotomy in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What is the role of bariatric surgery in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?

What are the risk factors for postoperative pulmonary edema in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

What is included in long-term monitoring of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment?