Enuresis Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 14, 2022
  • Author: Wm Lane M Robson, MD, MA, FRCP, FRCP(Glasg); Chief Editor: Marc Cendron, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is enuresis?

What are the signs and symptoms of enuresis?

Which conditions may result in enuresis?

What is included in the physical exam for suspected enuresis?

How is enuresis diagnosed?

Which tests are performed in the workup of enuresis?

What are the treatment options for enuresis?

What is included in the initial management of enuresis?

What is alarm therapy for enuresis?

What are pharmacologic therapies for enuresis?

What is enuresis?

What are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for enuresis?

What are the subtypes of enuresis?

At what age do children acquire bladder control?

What is the role of genetics in the pathogenesis of enuresis?

What is the role of an overactive bladder or dysfunctional voiding in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of diabetes insipidus in the etiology of enuresis?

What are the possible causes of enuresis?

What are the pathophysiological factors in idiopathic enuresis?

What is the role of sleep arousal in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of nocturnal polyuria in the etiology of enuresis?

What are the causes of nocturnal polyuria in children with enuresis?

What is the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of small functional bladder capacity (FBC) in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of cystitis in the etiology of enuresis?

What are psychological causes of enuresis?

What is the role of constipation in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of neurogenic bladder in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of urethral obstruction in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of seizure disorder in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of ectopic ureter in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the role of diabetes mellitus in the etiology of enuresis?

What is the prevalence of enuresis?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of enuresis?

What is the prognosis of enuresis?

What are the benefits of treating enuresis?

What is the efficacy of alarm therapy for treatment of enuresis?

What is the prognosis of enuresis?

What is included in patient education about enuresis?

Presentation

What is the focus of clinical history in the evaluation of enuresis?

Why are sleep and nutrition history needed for the evaluation of enuresis?

What information about the emotional impact of enuresis should be obtained?

What are the symptoms of overactive bladder or dysfunctional voiding in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of cystitis in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of constipation in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of neurogenic bladder in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of urethral obstruction in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of major motor seizure in enuresis?

What are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in enuresis?

What are the aspects of a comprehensive physical exam for enuresis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of enuresis?

How is the integrity of the S2-4 spinal reflex arc assessed in patients with enuresis?

How is a possible urethral obstruction assessed in patients with enuresis?

Which physical findings suggest ectopic ureter in girls with enuresis?

How are OSA symptoms assessed in patients with enuresis?

DDX

How is enuresis diagnosed?

Workup

Which tests are included in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of ultrasonography in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of urodynamic studies and cystoscopy in the workup of enuresis?

What is the role of uroflowmetry in the workup of enuresis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for enuresis?

What is the included in the initial management of enuresis?

What is the role of alarm therapy in the treatment of enuresis?

What is the role of desmopressin acetate in the treatment of enuresis?

What are the benefits and adverse effects of desmopressin acetate for treatment of enuresis?

What is the efficacy of desmopressin acetate as treatment for enuresis?

What is the role of anticholinergic agents in the management of enuresis?

What is the role of imipramine in the treatment of enuresis?

What dietary modifications are used in the treatment of enuresis?

What is included in long-term monitoring of patients with enuresis?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of enuresis?

Which medications in the drug class Antidepressants, TCAs are used in the treatment of Enuresis?

Which medications in the drug class Antispasmodic Agents, Urinary are used in the treatment of Enuresis?

Which medications in the drug class Vasopressin-Related are used in the treatment of Enuresis?