Atopic Dermatitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 13, 2019
  • Author: Brian S Kim, MD, MTR, FAAD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are the symptoms of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are the primary physical findings of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which constellation of symptoms and features are commonly seen in atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are the AAD diagnostic guidelines for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What should be considered prior to the workup for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which topical medications are typically used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which less common treatments have been tried for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What nonmedical measures may be helpful in the management of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

How is atopic dermatitis (eczema) characterized?

What other atopic conditions are associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of T and B cells in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is epidermal barrier dysfunction hypothesis of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of infection in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of hygiene in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of climate in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of food antigens in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of probiotics in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of aeroallergens in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of tobacco in the etiology of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are the racial predilections of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

How does the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (eczema) vary among men and women?

How does the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (eczema) vary by age?

What is the prognosis of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the financial and psychological burden of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which complication of atopic dermatitis (eczema) is caused by herpes simplex infection?

What is the risk of Kaposi varicelliform eruption (eczema herpeticum) following chickenpox vaccination in patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which bacterial infection is common in patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

The risk for which allergic reactions is increased in patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which allergies are common in patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What information about atopic dermatitis (eczema) should be given to patients?

Presentation

What is the most debilitating symptom of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the natural course of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which history findings are common in patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which historical features must be present for a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What should be the focus of the physical exam for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which features are diagnostic of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which features support a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are the nonspecific features of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in infancy?

Which physical findings are characteristic of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in childhood?

Which physical findings are characteristic of atopic dermatitis (eczema) in adulthood?

What are the diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

DDX

How is atopic dermatitis (eczema) distinguished from other causes of dermatitis?

How is scabies differentiated from atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

How is allergic contact dermatitis from nickel distinguished from atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

How is atopic dermatitis diagnosed in infants?

How does mycosis fungoides differentiated from atopic dermatitis (eczema) in children?

How is tinea corporis differentiated from atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

When is viral testing indicated in the workup of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Atopic Dermatitis?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which histologic findings are specific for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Treatment

When is emergency therapy for atopic dermatitis (eczema) indicated?

What nonmedical therapies are used in the management of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of topical steroids in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of immunomodulators in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of dupilumab in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of anti-IL-33 therapy (ANB020) in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of crisaborole topical ointment 2% (Eucrisa) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of probiotics in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the role of phototherapy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the indication for acyclovir in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which treatments for atopic dermatitis (eczema) have been shown to be effective?

Which medications have not been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What is the efficacy of diluted bleach (sodium hypochlorite) baths for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which nonmedical measures are helpful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which specialist consultations are useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are dietary restrictions for patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What activity restrictions are required for patients with atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

What are possible complications of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

How is atopic dermatitis (eczema) prevented?

Guidelines

What guidelines have been published for diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Medications

What is the focus of treatment for atopic dermatitis (eczema)?

Which medications in the drug class Anti-inflammatory agents are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

Which medications in the drug class Targeted Biologic Therapies (Interleukin Inhibitors) are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

Which medications in the drug class Topical Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4) Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiviral agents are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Atopic Dermatitis?