Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 12, 2018
  • Author: Brian Berman, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What are keloids?

What are hypertrophic scars?

What is the pathophysiology of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of collagen nodules in the pathophysiology of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Which age group is at highest risk for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the racial predilections for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How does the incidence of keloids and hypertrophic scars vary by sex?

What age group is more commonly affected by keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the prognosis of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the areas commonly affected by keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Which genes have been associated with keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What information about keloids and hypertrophic scars should patients receive?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How do keloids and hypertrophic scars manifest?

Which physical findings are characteristic of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the clinical progression of keloids and hypertrophic scars develop?

How are keloids characterized?

How are keloids and hypertrophic scars differentiated?

How does the site of keloids and hypertrophic scars vary by race?

What causes keloids and hypertrophic scars?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How are the physical properties of keloids and hypertrophic scars assessed?

What are the benefits of the Vesmeter in the diagnosis of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Treatment

What is the basis for treatment selection in patients with keloids?

What are treatment options for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How are keloids and hypertrophic scars prevented?

What are the standard treatments for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are different types of occlusive dressings used for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective are occlusive dressings for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the mechanism of action for compression therapy in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the types of compression treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective are corticosteroids in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How should corticosteroids be administered for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of keloidectomy in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of imiquimod in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How are keloids and hypertrophic scars managed?

What is the role of IFN therapy work in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective is IFN therapy in treating keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the mechanism of action for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of doxorubicin in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of bleomycin in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective is bleomycin for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Which bleomycin combination therapies are effective in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of verapamil in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of retinoic acid in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the pros and cons of using retinoic acid as treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the recurrence rate of keloids and hypertrophic scars following treatment with imiquimod?

What is the role of tacrolimus in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of sirolimus in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of tamoxifen in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of botulinum toxin A (BTA) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective is botulinum toxin A (BTA) in treating keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of TGF-beta in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How safe and effective is TGF-beta for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of hydrogel scaffold, in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the surgical options for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of cryotherapy in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How is excision performed in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the efficacy of excision for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of imiquimod in the postexcision care of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of laser therapy in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the efficacy of laser therapy for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective is the Erbium:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser (Er:YAG) for the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of pulsed-dye laser (PDL) (585 nm) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective is pulsed-dye laser (PDL) (585 nm) for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of pulsed-dye laser (PDL) (595 nm) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

How effective is pulsed-dye laser (PDL) (595 nm) for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of Neodymium:Yttrium, aluminum, garnet laser (1064 nm) (Nd:YAG) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of Ultraviolet A-1 (UVA-1) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of Narrowband UVB in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of Broadband UVB in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is the role of intense pulsed light (IPL) in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What are the complications of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Medications

What is the goal of drug treatment for keloids and hypertrophic scars?

Which medications in the drug class Topical Skin Products are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Which medications in the drug class Retinoid-like Agents are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agents are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Which medications in the drug class Calcium Channel Blockers are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulators are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scar?