Systemic Sclerosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 16, 2019
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the pathophysiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Which factors are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What causes systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the incidence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in the US?

What is the global incidence of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What are the racial predilections of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

How does the incidence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) vary by sex?

Which patient groups are at increased risk for systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the prognosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

How does systemic sclerosis (SSc) affect quality of life?

What is the mortality and morbidity rate of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What information about systemic sclerosis (SSc) should patients be given?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

How do the medical signs and symptoms of systemic sclerosis (SSc) correlate to outcomes?

How is systemic sclerosis (SSc) diagnosed?

What are the phases of cutaneous involvement of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What are the types of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and how is the dSSc type characterized?

How is the ISSc type of systemic sclerosis (SSc) characterized?

How is the diffuse systemic sclerosis (dSSc) and/or ISSc type of systemic sclerosis (SSc) characterized?

How are systemic scleroderma sine scleroderma and malignant scleroderma characterized?

How are GI symptoms and pain characterized in systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What are the complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

DDX

How is scleroderma differentiated from systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Systemic Sclerosis?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of chest radiographs in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of bone radiography in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) and scintigraphy in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in the diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of lung function testing in the evaluation of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Which tests may be performed to assess heart changes during the evaluation of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing in the evaluation of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Treatment

Which medications are used in the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What are the treatment options for pruritus in systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

How is a Raynaud episode prevented in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

How do the treatments of systemic sclerosis (SSc) vary with organ involvement?

Which antifibrotic and immunomodulatory agents are used in the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Which specialists should be consulted for the treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Medications

What is the role of drug treatment for systemic sclerosis (SSc)?

Which medications in the drug class Antihypertensive agents are used in the treatment of Systemic Sclerosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiplatelet agents are used in the treatment of Systemic Sclerosis?

Which medications in the drug class Vasoactive agents are used in the treatment of Systemic Sclerosis?

Which medications in the drug class Antifibrotic agents are used in the treatment of Systemic Sclerosis?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulatory agents are used in the treatment of Systemic Sclerosis?