Melasma Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 26, 2018
  • Author: Willis Hughes Lyford, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is melasma?

What is the pathophysiology of melasma?

What causes melasma?

What is the prevalence of melasma in the US?

What are the racial predilections of melasma?

What are the sexual predispositions of melasma?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of melasma?

What is the prognosis of melasma?

What is included in patient education about melasma?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of melasma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of melasma?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of melasma?

What are the differential diagnoses for Melasma?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of melasma?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of melasma?

Treatment

How is melasma treated?

How is melasma recurrence prevented?

What is the role of oral contraceptives in the treatment of melasma?

What is the role of hydroxyquinone (HQ) in the treatment of melasma?

What is the role of topical retinoids (trans-retinoic-acid) in the treatment of melasma?

What is the role of tretinoin in the treatment of melasma?

What is the role of azelaic acid in the treatment of melasma?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of melasma?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of melasma?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for melasma?

Which medications in the drug class Retinoids are used in the treatment of Melasma?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotic agents are used in the treatment of Melasma?

Which medications in the drug class Depigmenting agents are used in the treatment of Melasma?