Drug-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia Medication

Updated: Mar 26, 2019
  • Author: Lina M Mejia, DDS, MPH; Chief Editor: Jeff Burgess, DDS, MSD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Recent observations suggests that roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, may have a therapeutic role in reducing cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth, owing to its inhibitory effect on transforming growth factor-beta production. [41] Azithromycin has been used successfully. [42, 43, 44, 45]

In addition, tacrolimus, a commonly used immunosuppressive agent, can become an alternative to cyclosporine-A use. [46] However, tacrolimus can also induce gingival overgrowth, but this effect appears to be time related. [47]

Clinical studies comparing oral hygiene programs versus azithromycin indicate that azithromycin plus oral hygiene significantly reduces cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia, while oral hygiene alone reduces oral symptoms but does not affect cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia. [48]

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Azithromycin (Zithromax)

Azithromycin is used to treat mild-to-moderate oral microbial infections. Clinical studies comparing oral hygiene programs versus azithromycin indicate that azithromycin plus oral hygiene significantly reduces cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia, while oral hygiene alone reduces oral symptoms but does not affect cyclosporine-induced gingival hyperplasia.

Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that acts by suppressing protein synthesis of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes. Take 1-2 hours after eating.

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Mouthwash antiseptics

Class Summary

Antiseptic agent for oral bacterial and fungal infections.

Chlorhexidine oral (Peridex, PerioChip, PerioGard)

Chlorhexidine gluconate is an effective, safe, and reliable mouthwash antiseptic. It is a polybiguanide with bactericidal activity, usually supplied as a gluconate salt. At physiologic pH, the salt dissociates to a cation that binds to bacterial cell walls.

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