Oral Submucous Fibrosis Medication

Updated: Jun 18, 2018
  • Author: Nektarios I Lountzis, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and to prevent complications. [71] In addition to the medications listed below, placental extract has been used experimentally at a dose of 50 mcg/m2 SC 3 times per week if the patient's body surface area (BSA) is greater than 0.52 m2 or 1.5 mcg/kg/dose SC 3 times per week if the BSA is less than or equal to 0.5 m2. [72]  The adult dose below for lycopene is suggested from one study. [63]  The adult dosage for pentoxifylline is suggested by Rajendran et al. [64]

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

These can be used in pharmacologic doses for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant properties and their effects on blood and lymphatic systems in the palliative treatment of various diseases.

Dexamethasone (Decadron)

Dexamethasone is used for various inflammatory diseases. It decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reducing capillary permeability.

Triamcinolone (Aristospan, Kenalog IV, Trivaris)

Triamcinolone suppresses the immune system by reducing the activity and volume of the lymphatic system. It treats inflammatory mucosal lesions that are responsive to steroids. It decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and by reversing capillary permeability.

Betamethasone valerate (Diprosone)

Betamethasone valerate is for inflammatory reactions responsive to steroids. It decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and by reversing capillary permeability. It affects the production of lymphokines and has an inhibitory effect on Langerhans cells.

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Extravasation antidotes

Class Summary

Extravasation antidotes can enhance the diffusion of locally irritating or toxic drugs in the management of intravenous extravasation.

Hyaluronidase (Wydase Injection)

Hyaluronidase stimulates hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid, one of the chief ingredients of tissue cement, which offers resistance to the diffusion of liquids through tissues. It is used to aid in the absorption and dispersion of injected drugs.

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Interferons

Class Summary

Interferons are naturally produced proteins with antiviral, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-interferons may be given topically, systemically, or intralesionally.

Interferon gamma (Actimmune)

Interferon gamma is believed to act via the ability to counteract cell surface expression of proinflammatory or proadhesion molecules on immune cells, among other effects. More studies are needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action.

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Antioxidant

Class Summary

These have been found to possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties in animal and laboratory studies, although activity in humans remains controversial. The adult dose below is suggested from one study.

Lycopene (LycoRed)

Lycopene is considered an antioxidant and has antiproliferative properties in animal and laboratory studies, although activity in humans remains controversial.

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Vasodilator

Class Summary

These are methylxanthine derivatives that have vasodilating properties and may increase mucosal vascularity. The adult dosage is suggested by Rajendran et al.

Pentoxifylline (Trental)

Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative that has vasodilating properties and may increase mucosal vascularity.

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