Necrotizing Sialometaplasia Clinical Presentation

Updated: Mar 29, 2018
  • Author: John A Svirsky, DDS, MEd; Chief Editor: Jeff Burgess, DDS, MSD  more...
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Presentation

History

Most cases of necrotizing sialometaplasia appear to arise spontaneously, whereas others are associated with a history of trauma, vomiting, [18, 19] radiation therapy, or surgery. [18] An association with neoplasia, such as parotid tumors, false vocal cord squamous cell carcinoma, and maxillary sinus carcinoma, is also reported. Cases associated with inflammatory conditions such as relapsing polychondritis and acute and chronic sinusitis have been noted to occur in the subglottic and sinus regions, respectively.

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Physical Examination

Necrotizing sialometaplasia manifests as a swelling with or without ulceration in anatomic sites that have mucous or serous glandular tissue.

The typical clinical presentation of necrotizing sialometaplasia is that of a crateriform ulcer of the palate that simulates a malignant process. These ulcerated lesions are 1-3 cm and are usually unilateral, but bilateral synchronous lesions and metachronous lesions can occur. [20, 21, 22]

Some lesions of necrotizing sialometaplasia may present as a submucosal swelling, without ulceration of the overlying mucosa. An intact surface mucosa may be noted in an evolving lesion at the time of diagnosis, although most cases are accompanied by mucosal ulceration. Erosion of the palatal bone may occur in either ulcerated or nonulcerated lesions.

Examination of a biopsy specimen is usually required to establish the correct diagnosis and to exclude a malignant or infectious process or an inflammatory condition such as Wegener granulomatosis. Extranodal lymphoma also may be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis of a palatal swelling or ulceration.

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