Bedbug Bites Medication

Updated: Mar 05, 2018
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy are to reduce morbidity and to prevent complications.

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory properties and cause profound and varied metabolic effects. These agents modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli.

Triamcinolone topical (Kenalog, Triderm, Zytopic)

Topical triamcinolone (0.1% cream) is an anti-inflammatory that is administered for intense, localized allergic reactions. This agent can be used to treat inflammatory dermatosis that is responsive to steroids.

Topical triamcinolone decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing capillary permeability.

Hydrocortisone (Cortizone, Ala-Cort, Westcort)

Hydrocortisone is an adrenocorticosteroid derivative suitable for application to the skin or external mucous membranes. It decreases inflammation by suppression of the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversal of increased capillary permeability.

Clobetasol (Temovate, Clobex)

Clobetasol is a class I superpotent topical steroid; it suppresses mitosis and increases the synthesis of proteins that decrease inflammation and cause vasoconstriction. Clobetasol decreases inflammation by stabilization of lysosomal membranes, inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and deregulation of mast cells.

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Antihistamines

Class Summary

Antihistamines are used to treat minor allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. These agents act by competitive inhibition of histamine at H1 receptor.

Chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton, Teldrin, Aller-Chlor, Chlor-Hist)

Chlorpheniramine is used to treat intense, localized allergic reactions. This agent competes with histamine or H1-receptor sites on effector cells in blood vessels and the respiratory tract.

Diphenhydramine (Anti-Hist, Allerdryl, Benadryl)

This is a first-generation antihistamine with anticholinergic effects that binds to H1 receptors in the CNS and the body. It competitively blocks histamine from binding to H1 receptors. It is used for symptomatic relief of symptoms caused by the release of histamine in allergic reactions.

Loratadine (Claritin, Alavert)

Loratadine selectively inhibits peripheral histamine H1 receptors. It is tolerated well, with rate of sedation not significantly different from placebo.

Desloratadine (Clarinex)

Desloratadine is a long-acting tricyclic histamine antagonist selective for the H1-receptor. It is a major metabolite of loratadine, which, after ingestion, is extensively metabolized to the active metabolite 3-hydroxydesloratadine.

Cetirizine (Zyrtec)

Cetirizine selectively inhibits histamine H1 receptor sites in blood vessels, the GI tract, and the respiratory tract, which, in turn, inhibits the physiologic effects that histamine normally induces at H1 receptor sites. Once-daily dosing is convenient. Bedtime dosing may be useful if sedation is a problem.

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