Calciphylaxis Questions & Answers

Updated: Aug 02, 2018
  • Author: Julia R Nunley, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is calciphylaxis?

What is the historical importance of calciphylaxis?

What is the pathogenesis of calciphylaxis?

What molecular and chemical factors are involved in the pathophysiology of calciphylaxis?

Which disorders are associated with the development of calciphylaxis?

What causes calciphylaxis?

Which patients are at an increased risk for calciphylaxis?

What do the lesions of calciphylaxis (livedo reticularis and stellate purpura) suggest?

What is the role of hypercoagulable conditions in the etiology of calciphylaxis?

What is the role of vascular calcification in the etiology of calciphylaxis?

What is the prevalence of calciphylaxis?

What are the racial predilections for calciphylaxis?

How does the prevalence of calciphylaxis vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of calciphylaxis vary by age?

What is the prognosis of calciphylaxis?

What is included in patient education about calciphylaxis?

Presentation

Which clinical history is characteristic of calciphylaxis?

What are risk factors for the development of calciphylaxis?

What should be the focus of history in suspected calciphylaxis?

What are the physical findings characteristic of calciphylaxis?

What are potential complications of calciphylaxis?

DDX

What should be included in the differential diagnoses for calciphylaxis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Calciphylaxis?

Workup

Which lab tests are performed in the workup of calciphylaxis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of calciphylaxis?

What is the role of biopsy in the workup of calciphylaxis?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of calciphylaxis?

Treatment

What is the initial therapy for calciphylaxis?

What are the treatment options for patients with an elevated calcium-phosphate product and calciphylaxis?

What is the role of calcimimetics in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

What is the role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

What is the role of sodium thiosulfate in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

How should patients with calciphylaxis be monitored?

What is the role of antibiotics in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

How are hypercoagulability conditions managed in patients with calciphylaxis?

How is pain managed in calciphylaxis?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

Which specialist consultations may be considered in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

Which dietary restrictions are needed in the treatment of calciphylaxis?

How should activity be restricted during the treatment of calciphylaxis?