LEOPARD Syndrome Medication

Updated: Apr 12, 2021
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Medication Summary

The combination of tretinoin and hydroquinone can be used as a skin lightening agent.



Class Summary

Retinoids decrease the cohesiveness of abnormal hyperproliferative keratinocytes and may reduce the potential for malignant degeneration. They modulate keratinocyte differentiation. Retinoids have been shown to reduce the risk of skin cancer formation in renal transplant patients. In this case, the combination with hydroquinone is good for topical use.

Tretinoin topical (Avita, Retin-A)

Tretinoin is a keratolytic agent. It acts by increasing epidermal cell mitosis and turnover while suppressing keratin synthesis. Tretinoin may help lighten lentigines, particularly when used in combination with hydroquinone.


Depigmenting agents

Class Summary

Depigmenting agents block melanogenesis and work well in combination with tretinoin.


Hydroquinone lightens hyperpigmented skin by inhibiting enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and suppressing other melanocyte metabolic processes, thereby further inhibiting melanogenesis. Exposure to the sun reverses effects and causes repigmentation.