Cutaneous Melanoma Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 29, 2019
  • Author: Susan M Swetter, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cutaneous melanoma?

What is the pathophysiology of cutaneous melanoma?

What causes cutaneous melanoma?

What are primary risk factors for cutaneous melanoma?

What are universal risk factors for cutaneous melanoma?

What is the prevalence of cutaneous melanoma in the US?

What is the global prevalence of cutaneous melanoma?

What are the racial predilections of cutaneous melanoma?

What are the sexual predilections of cutaneous melanoma?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of cutaneous melanoma?

Which factors affect the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the prognosis of stage I and II cutaneous melanoma?

What is the prognosis of stage III cutaneous melanoma?

What is the prognosis of stage IV cutaneous melanoma?

What are the morbidity rates for cutaneous melanoma in the US?

What are the global mortality rates for cutaneous melanoma?

What is included in patient education about cutaneous melanoma?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of cutaneous melanoma?

What are the ABCDE criteria for a changing mole in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of amelanotic melanoma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cutaneous melanoma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of superficial spreading melanoma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of nodular melanoma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lentigo maligna melanoma?

Which physical findings are characteristic of acral lentiginous melanoma?

What are the rare melanoma variants?

Which physical findings are characteristic of desmoplastic melanoma?

Where does metastasis occur in cutaneous melanoma?

DDX

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of cutaneous melanoma?

What are the differential diagnoses for Cutaneous Melanoma?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of cutaneous melanoma?

What are the components of cutaneous melanoma surveillance?

What is the role of lab testing in cutaneous melanoma staging?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of biopsy in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of cutaneous melanoma?

How is cutaneous melanoma staged?

Treatment

What is the role of pembrolizumab in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the efficacy of adjuvant therapies for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of high-dose IFN in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of ipilimumab (Yervoy) in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of biochemotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of melanoma vaccines in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of ipilimumab in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of PD1 inhibitors in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of T-vec (Imlygic) in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What are the recommended surgical margins in the surgical treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of lymph node dissection in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a dermatologist in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a surgical oncologist in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a medical oncologist in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a nuclear medicine specialist in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a dermatopathologist in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a radiation oncologist in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is the role of a neurosurgeon in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of patients with cutaneous melanoma?

How is recurrent/metastatic cutaneous melanoma diagnosed?

Guidelines

According to the American Academy of Dermatology guidelines, what the prognostic factors for primary cutaneous melanoma?

What are the American Academy of Dermatology first-line treatment recommendations for primary cutaneous melanoma?

What are the American Academy of Dermatology recommendations for baseline and surveillance imaging of primary cutaneous melanoma?

What are the American Academy of Dermatology recommendations for long-term monitoring following treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma?

What are the American Academy of Dermatology recommendations for monitoring patients receiving BRAF inhibitor monotherapy for primary cutaneous melanoma?

What are the American Academy of Dermatology recommendations for monitoring patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors for primary cutaneous melanoma?

What are the NCCN guidelines on first-line treatment for metastatic or unresectable cutaneous melanoma?

What are the NCCN guidelines on second-line treatment for metastatic or unresectable cutaneous melanoma?

What are the NCCN guidelines on adjuvant therapies for stage III melanoma?

What are the NCCN guidelines on adjuvant therapies for stage IV melanoma?

What are the NCCN guidelines on adjuvant therapies for melanoma recurrence?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma?

Which medications in the drug class Oncolytic Immunotherapy are used in the treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Other are used in the treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma?

Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastics, Monoclonal Antibodies are used in the treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma?

Which medications in the drug class Immunomodulatory Agents are used in the treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma?