Clubbing of the Nails Questions & Answers

Updated: Mar 18, 2020
  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

How is clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) classified?

What is pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) and how does it relate to clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) and how does it relate to clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the pathophysiology of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

How does clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) occur?

Which pathological mechanism causes clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What has the role of nail bed hypervascularization in the pathogenesis of nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of vasodilation in the pathogenesis of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the evidence for the presence of a circulating vasodilator in the pathophysiology of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of the vagal system in the pathophysiology of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of hypoxia in the pathophysiology of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of genetics in the pathophysiology of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of platelet-derived growth factor in the pathophysiology of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What causes clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What are the causes of idiopathic or primary clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What are the causes of secondary clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What condition is suggested by hypertrophic osteoarthropathy with clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What does a finding of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) suggest in end-stage renal disease?

What is the likelihood of chronic renal failure in patients with nail disorders, including clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the prevalence of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the prevalence of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

What is the prevalence of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) in lung cancer?

What is the prevalence of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) in GI conditions?

Is there a racial predilection for clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

Does the prevalence of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) vary between males and females?

What is the mortality rate associated with clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the morbidity associated with clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the prognosis of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

Presentation

How does clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) develop?

When has resolution of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) been reported?

How might hypertrophic osteoarthropathy present in to clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What systemic disorder may be suggested by clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

How is clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) characterized?

How is the nail characterized in clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What does the presence of a Schamroth sign suggest in clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What a possible complications of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

DDX

How is hypertrophic osteoarthropathy diagnosed?

How is pseudoclubbing defined?

What are the differential diagnoses for Clubbing of the Nails?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the evaluation of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What are expected radiographic findings of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of technetium Tc 99m skeletal imaging in the evaluation of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of thermography in the evaluation of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the evaluation of clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

Which histologic findings are expected in clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

What is the role of surgical intervention in clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

Which specialist consultations may be helpful for clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?

How should outpatient care for clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing) be guided?

Medications

How is medical therapy selected for clubbing of the nails (digital clubbing)?