Granular Parakeratosis Medication

Updated: Dec 13, 2019
  • Author: Sheevam A Shah, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

The goals of pharmacotherapy for granular parakeratosis are to reduce pruritus and to improve the appearance of the eruption that manifests with granular parakeratosis.

Maxacalcitol is an active vitamin D-3 ointment that has been used in refractory psoriasis. It seems to have potent antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on keratinocytes and has been used effectively for treatment. [19]

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Retinoid-like Agents

Class Summary

These agents are vitamin A analogues involved in modulation of cell growth, division, reproduction, and differentiation. Their biologic effects result from alterations in gene expressions that are mediated through 2 major types of nuclear receptors: the retinoic acid receptor and the retinoic X receptor. Each receptor subtype likely controls the expression of both unique genes and common genes. Subclass-specific retinoids are available. Systemic retinoids very likely are not indicated for this harmless condition, but they could perhaps be used in exceptional cases.

Isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, Sotret)

Isotretinoin is an oral agent that treats serious dermatologic conditions. Isotretinoin is the synthetic 13-cis isomer of the naturally occurring tretinoin (trans -retinoic acid). Both agents are structurally related to vitamin A. Isotretinoin is a second-line treatment because it has frequent adverse effects and because topical medications can effectively treat this condition.

A US Food and Drug Administration–mandated registry is now in place for all individuals prescribing, dispensing, or taking isotretinoin. For more information on this registry, see iPLEDGE. This registry aims to further decrease the risk of pregnancy and other unwanted and potentially dangerous adverse effects during a course of isotretinoin therapy.

Tretinoin topical (Avita, Retin-A, Renova, Refissa, Tretin-X, Altreno)

Tretinoin topical makes keratinocytes in sebaceous follicles less adherent and easier to remove. It is available as 0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1% creams. It is also available as 0.01% and 0.025% gels and 0.05% lotion. Tretinoin topical can be a first-line treatment in granular parakeratosis but is irritating and should be used with caution.

Tazarotene (Tazorac, Avage)

Tazarotene is a topical medication approved for psoriasis and acne. It is useful in normalizing functioning of epithelial cells. Tazarotene acts on a genetic level, leading to the transcription of certain retinoic acid genes. Use is off-label.

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Vitamins, Fat-Soluble

Class Summary

These agents are essential for normal DNA synthesis and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. They may also work as cofactors used in aerobic cellular respiration.

Calcipotriene (Dovonex, Calcitrene)

Calcipotriene is a topical preparation containing vitamin D-3. It is indicated for psoriasis. Calcipotriene seems to normalize maturation of epidermal cells.

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Topical Skin Products

Class Summary

This agent normalizes skin function.

Ammonium lactate (Lac Hydrin, AmLactin, LAClotion)

Ammonium lactate is a topical medication used to treat dry skin. It relieves itching and aids in healing skin in mild eczemas and dermatoses, itching skin, minor wounds, and minor skin irritations. Ammonium lactate is found in a variety of topical emollient lotions.

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

These agents have both anti-inflammatory (glucocorticoid) properties and salt-retaining (mineralocorticoid) properties. Glucocorticoids have profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, these agents modify the body's immune response to diverse stimuli.

Hydrocortisone topical (CortaGel, Cortaid, Dermarest, Ala-Cort )

Hydrocortisone topical is an adrenocorticosteroid derivative suitable for application to skin or external mucous membranes. It decreases inflammation by suppression of migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversal of increased capillary permeability. It can be a first-line treatment in this condition but can cause striae and skin thinning when used in axillary or groin areas.

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