Erythema Multiforme Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 30, 2018
  • Author: Jose A Plaza, MD; Chief Editor: William D James, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are the signs and symptoms of erythema multiforme (EM) minor?

What are the signs and symptoms of erythema multiforme (EM) major?

What is the consensus classification of erythema multiforme (EM) and Steven-Johnson syndrome?

What is the pathophysiology of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What evidence supports a cell-mediated immune reaction pathogenesis for erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of HSV in the pathogenesis of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of drug hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which viral infections cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

What causes erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the most common cause of erythema multiforme (EM) in children?

Which bacterial infections cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which fungal and parasitic infections cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which medications can cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which antibiotics can cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which antituberculoid agents can cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

Other than antibiotics and antituberculoids, which medications cause erythema multiforme (EM)?

What substances can cause erythema multiforme (EM) upon direct contract?

What are less common causes of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the incidence of erythema multiforme (EM) in the US and globally?

How does the incidence of erythema multiforme (EM) vary between males and females and among different age groups?

Which medical conditions increase the risk of developing erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the prognosis of erythema multiforme (EM) minor?

What is the prognosis of erythema multiforme (EM) major?

What are poor prognostic factors for erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are the manifestations of continuous or persistent erythema multiforme (EM)?

What information about erythema multiforme (EM) should patients receive?

Presentation

What should be the focus of the history for suspected erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are the prodromal symptoms of erythema multiforme (EM) minor?

What are the prodromal symptoms of erythema multiforme (EM) major?

What are possible mucosal symptoms of erythema multiforme (EM) major?

What history is common in children with erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the hallmark of erythema multiforme (EM)?

How are skin lesions characterized in erythema multiforme (EM)?

How are skin lesions distributed in erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are the characteristics of mucosal lesions in erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are nonspecific physical exam findings of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What causes dehydration in patients with erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which conditions complicate the course of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are possible complications of erythema multiforme (EM) lesions?

What are ophthalmologic complications of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are systemic complications of erythema multiforme (EM)?

DDX

What factors improve survival in erythema multiforme (EM)?

What measures should be taken if adverse drug reactions are suspected as a cause of erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which other conditions should be considered in the evaluation of suspected erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Erythema Multiforme?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of erythema multiforme (EM)?

When are cultures indicated in the workup of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which complete blood count (CBC) results are characteristic of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of electrolyte values in the workup of erythema multiforme (EM)?

When are BUN and creatinine tests indicated in the workup of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR) in the workup of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of immunofluorescence study and PCR amplification in the evaluation of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the role of histopathologic testing in the workup of erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of erythema multiforme (EM)?

How are histology and immunochemistry used to differentiate erythema multiforme (EM) from Steven-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN)?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for erythema multiforme (EM)?

Why should all medications be discontinued during the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

How are infections of erythema multiforme (EM) lesions treated?

What is the treatment for eye involvement in erythema multiforme (EM)?

What can prevent herpes simplex virus (HSV)-associated erythema multiforme (EM)?

How are mild cases of erythema multiforme (EM) treated?

What is the focus of treatment for severe cases of erythema multiforme (EM) major?

What does emergency care of erythema multiforme (EM) include?

When is hospitalization indicated in patients with erythema multiforme (EM)?

When is transfer indicated for patients with erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which treatment provides the greatest likelihood of survival in severe erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the inpatient treatment for herpes simplex virus (HSV) or M pneumoniae-related erythema multiforme (EM)?

What is the duration of inpatient treatment for erythema multiforme (EM)?

When is fluid resuscitation and nutritional support indicated for the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

How is fluid resuscitation and nutritional support administered in the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

When is pulmonary support indicated in the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

What inpatient supportive care should be provided in the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which specialist consultations may be needed for diagnosis and management of erythema multiforme (EM)?

How should patients treated for erythema multiforme (EM) be monitored?

What is the treatment for erythema multiforme (EM) caused by medications?

When are topical corticosteroids indicated in the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

When is prophylaxis for recurrence of herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) indicated?

How is premenstrual erythema multiforme (EM) prevented?

What is the role of antibiotics in the prevention and management of erythema multiforme (EM)?

Medications

What is the role of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of erythema multiforme (EM)?

When should prophylaxis for recurrence of herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) be considered?

What are alternative medications for erythema multiforme (EM)?

What are the treatment options for ocular involvement in erythema multiforme (EM)?

How is antimicrobial therapy selected in erythema multiforme (EM)?

Which medications in the drug class Antivirals are used in the treatment of Erythema Multiforme?