Frontal Lobe Syndromes Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 08, 2018
  • Author: Stephen L Nelson, Jr, MD, PhD, FAACPDM, FAAN, FAAP; Chief Editor: Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

Why isn’t the frontal lobe evaluated in routine neurologic exams?

What anatomy is relevant to frontal lobe syndromes?

What are the clinical behaviors associated with frontal lobe lesions?

What is the pathophysiology of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the effect of frontal lobe syndromes on the working memory of the brain?

What is the incidence of frontal lobe syndromes in the US?

How does the incidence of frontal lobe syndromes vary by sex?

How does the etiology of frontal lobe syndromes vary by age?

Presentation

What should be the focus of history in the evaluation of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of neuropsychologic testing in the evaluation of frontal lobe syndromes?

Which specialists should be consulted for the evaluation of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the go/no-gO test and how is it used to assess frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the antisaccade test and how is it used to assess frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the trail-making test (TMT) and how is it used to assess frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the lexical fluency test (word generation, Thurstone test) and how is it used to assess frontal lobe syndromes?

How is attention and concentration assessed in frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the alternating sequences test and how is it used to assess frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the applause test and how is it used to assess frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in the evaluation of frontal lobe syndromes?

How are nonspecific cognitive deficits assessed in the evaluation of frontal lobe syndromes?

How is praxis assessed in the evaluation of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is neglect and how is it assessed in frontal lobe syndromes?

How is constructional apraxia assessed in frontal lobe syndromes?

How is judgment assessed in frontal lobe syndromes?

How are memory deficits assessed in frontal lobe syndromes?

Which behavioral and personality changes are characteristic of frontal lobe syndromes?

What are frontal release responses and how are they characterized in frontal lobe syndromes?

What is utilization behavior and how is it characterized in frontal lobe syndromes?

What is alien hand syndrome and how is it characterized in frontal lobe syndromes?

How is gait impairment characterized in frontal lobe syndromes?

How is incontinence characterized in frontal lobe syndromes?

What are the causes of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of cerebrovascular diseases in the etiology of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of malignancy in the etiology of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of traumatic lesions in the etiology of frontal lobe syndromes?

What causes hydrocephalus in frontal lobe syndromes?

What are the signs and symptoms of Tourette syndrome in frontal lobe syndrome?

What are frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD) and how do they affect the frontal lobe?

What are the signs and symptoms of behavioral variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD)?

What are infectious causes of frontal lobe syndromes?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Frontal Lobe Syndromes?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of EEG in the diagnosis of frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of frontal lobe syndromes?

Treatment

What is included in the treatment of frontal lobe syndromes?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the diagnosis and management of frontal lobe syndromes?

What activity restrictions are needed in the management of frontal lobe syndromes?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of frontal lobe syndromes?

Follow-up

What is included in outpatient monitoring of patients with frontal lobe syndromes?

When is inpatient care indicated for patients with frontal lobe syndromes?

What is the prognosis of frontal lobe syndromes?

Where can patient education resources about frontal lobe syndromes be found?