Postherpetic Neuralgia Clinical Presentation

Updated: Nov 29, 2016
  • Author: W Alvin McElveen, MD; Chief Editor: Robert A Egan, MD  more...
  • Print
Presentation

History

See the list below:

  • A painful vesicular eruption in a dermatomal distribution is typical of herpes zoster (HZ).
  • With resolution of the eruption, pain that continues for 3 months or more is defined as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).
  • Pain is intense and may be described as burning, stabbing, or gnawing.
  • HZ can reactivate subclinically with pain in a dermatomal distribution without rash. [4] This condition is known as zoster sine herpete and may be more complicated, affecting multiple levels of the nervous system and causing multiple cranial neuropathies, polyneuritis, myelitis, or aseptic meningitis. [5]
Next:

Physical

See the list below:

  • Area of previous HZ may show evidence of cutaneous scarring.
  • Sensation may be altered over involved areas, in the form of either hypersensitivity or decreased sensation.
  • Allodynia is pain produced by a non-noxious stimulus, such as a light touch by a brush, and may be present over the involved area.
  • Changes in autonomic function such as increased sweating over the involved area may be seen.
Previous
Next:

Causes

See the list below:

  • Risk factors for development of PHN include the following:
    • Advancing age
    • Site of HZ involvement
      • Lower risk - Jaw, neck, sacral, and lumbar
      • Moderate risk - Thoracic
      • Highest risk - Trigeminal (especially ophthalmic division), brachial plexus
    • Severe prodromal pain (with HZ)
    • Severe rash
Previous