Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 09, 2018
  • Author: Sandeep S Rana, MD; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is cervical spondylosis?

What are the degenerative changes that occur in response to cervical spondylosis?

What are the treatment options for cervical spondylosis?

What is the pathophysiology of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the pathophysiology of cervical spondylosis?

What is the pathophysiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in spondylosis?

What causes cord compression in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

What is the role of spinal cord ischemia in the pathophysiology of cervical spondylosis?

How does stretch-associated injury contribute to the pathophysiology of cervical spondylosis?

What is the frequency of cervical spondylosis?

What is the prevalence of cervical spondylosis?

Presentation

What are the manifestations of the clinical syndromes seen with cervical spondylosis?

What is the most common syndrome of cervical spondylosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of cervicalgia in cervical spondylosis?

How is headache characterized in cervical spondylosis?

What are the signs and symptoms of radiculopathy in cervical spondylosis?

What causes paraparesis and tetraparesis in cervical spondylosis?

What are the early symptoms of cervical spondylosis?

What are the manifestations of muscle weakness in cervical spondylosis?

What are the urologic symptoms cervical spondylosis?

How does cervical spondylosis affect quality of life?

What are the signs and symptoms of central cord syndrome in cervical spondylosis?

How is dysphagia managed in cervical spondylosis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of cervical spondylosis?

What is the significance of winging of the scapula in cervical spondylosis?

What is included in the physical exam for cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of the neck compression test in the evaluation of cervical spondylosis?

What are the most typical exam findings of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of the pectoralis muscle reflex test in the evaluation of cervical spondylosis?

How are the triceps and/or hand intrinsic muscles examined in the evaluation of cervical spondylosis?

Which lower extremity findings suggest cervical spondylosis?

What is the significance of gait in the evaluation of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of the Lhermitte sign in the evaluation of cervical spondylosis?

Which sensory abnormalities are characteristic of cervical spondylosis?

What are the risk factors for cervical spondylosis?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of cervical spondylosis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?

Workup

What is the role of lab findings in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What is the imaging study of choice for the diagnosis of cervical spondylosis?

What are the benefits of MRI in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of plain radiography in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What is the sensitivity of MRI in the diagnosis of cervical spondylosis?

What are the benefits of plain films in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What are the benefits of CT scanning in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What are the benefits of myelography in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

How is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) used in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of electrodiagnostic studies in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of somatosensory and cortical motor evoked potentials in the workup of cervical spondylosis?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of cervical spondylosis?

Which histologic finding is associated with anteroposterior compression in cervical spondylosis?

Treatment

What should be discussed prior to selection of therapeutic intervention of cervical spondylosis?

What is the long-term prognosis of cervical spondylosis?

What are the medical treatment options for cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of neck immobilization in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of medications in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of lifestyle modifications in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

When are physical modalities used for the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of cervical mechanical traction in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of cervical manipulations in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

Which exercises are designed to treat pain in cervical spondylosis?

What are the options for pain management in cervical spondylosis?

What is the goal of surgical care for cervical spondylosis?

What are the indications for surgery in cervical spondylosis?

What are the surgical approaches for cervical radiculopathy in spondylosis?

What is the role of allografts in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the efficacy of anterior cervical diskectomy (ACD) for cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of anterior cervical diskectomy (ACD) without fusion in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What are the benefits of the posterolateral approach to cervical radiculopathy for cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of facetectomies in the surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the efficacy of surgical intervention for cervical spondylotic myelopathy in spondylosis?

What are the risks of surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

What is the most commonly used therapy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the US?

When is surgery indicated in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

What is the natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

How do surgical and medical treatment outcomes for cervical spondylotic myelopathy compare?

When should surgery be considered in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

What is the primary goal of surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

How does sagittal alignment of the cervical spine affect treatment selection in cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of lordotic alignment of the cervical spine in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What are contraindications for posterior decompression in cervical spondylosis?

When is a combined anteroposterior surgical approach indicated in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

Which surgical approach is recommended for more than 3 segments of stenotic changes in cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of laminoplasty in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

When is the anterior surgical approach indicated for cervical spondylotic myelopathy?

What is the role of minimally invasive surgical techniques in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

What is the role of artificial cervical disks in the treatment of cervical spondylosis?

How safe is surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy in geriatric patients?

Medications

What is the goal of drug treatment for cervical spondylosis?

Which medications in the drug class Opiates are used in the treatment of Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?

Which medications in the drug class Muscle relaxants are used in the treatment of Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?

Which medications in the drug class Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors are used in the treatment of Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?

Which medications in the drug class Tricyclic antidepressants are used in the treatment of Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used in the treatment of Diagnosis and Management of Cervical Spondylosis?