Trigeminal Neuralgia Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 11, 2019
  • Author: Manish K Singh, MD; Chief Editor: Robert A Egan, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What are the signs and symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) diagnosed?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) characterized?

When was trigeminal neuralgia (TN) first described?

What is the cranial anatomy relevant to trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the pathophysiology of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What causes trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the prognosis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What are the possible complications of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is included in patient education about trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Where are patient education resources about trigeminal neuralgia (TN) found?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is pain localized in trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is the pain of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) characterized?

How frequent are attacks of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What may trigger an attack of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How does idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) differ in presentation from multiple sclerosis-associated trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) classified?

What are the IHS diagnostic criteria for trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the Eller classification scheme for trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

DDX

How is the differential diagnoses of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) narrowed?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) differentiated from migraine and cluster headaches?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) differentiated from atypical face pain?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) differentiated from glossopharyngeal neuralgia and occipital neuralgia syndromes?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) differentiated from paroxysmal hemicrania syndromes?

How is secondary trigeminal neuralgia (TN) differentiated from idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is trigeminal neuropathy differentiated from idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

When should multiple sclerosis be included in the differential diagnoses of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is herpetic and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN)differentiated from trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Trigeminal Neuralgia?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of MRA in the workup of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of CT scanning and CT angiography in the workup of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of clinical neurophysiologic testing in the workup of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Which histologic findings are characteristics of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Treatment

What is the approach to treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated initially?

What are the treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Which adjunct therapies are used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is depression treated in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the cost of medications for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How are antiepileptic drugs dosed for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What are the potential risks of antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What are the first- and second-line medications for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of carbamazepine in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of gabapentin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of lamotrigine (Lamictal) in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of phenytoin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the efficacy of non-antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of baclofen in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of dextromethorphan in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of misoprostol in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What types of surgical interventions are used in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the cost of surgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the timing for surgical intervention to treat trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What are the risks of surgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of microvascular decompression (MVD) in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of percutaneous procedures in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is PRTG performed for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is PRGR performed for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

How is PBM performed for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is the role of gamma knife surgery in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Guidelines

What are the EAN guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treatment?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN)?

Which medications in the drug class Toxins are used in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia?

Which medications in the drug class Tricyclic Antidepressants are used in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia?

Which medications in the drug class Skeletal Muscle Relaxants are used in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsant Agents are used in the treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia?