Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Questions & Answers

Updated: Jun 20, 2018
  • Author: Gaurav Gupta, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

How are complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I and type II defined?

How is complex regional pain syndrome not otherwise specified (CRPS-NOS) defined?

What are the clinical diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of peripheral and central sensitization in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which brain structure factors may have a role in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) in the pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of sensory and motor dysfunction in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of aberrant healing and inflammation in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of protective disuse in the development of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the incidence of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in the US?

What is the morbidity associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which patient groups have the highest incidence of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I?

What are the signs and symptoms of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I?

Which physical findings are characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What causes complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

DDX

How is neuropathy differentiated from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

How is posttraumatic neuralgia differentiated from complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of radiography in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of bone scintigraphy in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of quantitative sensory testing in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of autonomic function testing (AFT) in the workup of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which biomarkers are used in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of skin biopsy in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of muscle biopsy in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of peripheral nerve biopsy in the evaluation of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Treatment

What is the role of IV phentolamine in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of drug treatment for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of calcium-regulating drugs in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of opioids in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of NSAIDs in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of sodium channel blocking agents in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of gabapentin in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of calcium channel blockers in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of beta-blockers in the management of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of oral sympatholytic agents in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of clonidine in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which techniques are used to block sympathetic activity in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the efficacy of sympathetic interventions in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of selective sympathetic ganglion nerve blocks in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of IV regional sympathetic blocks in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of ketamine in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

How is ketamine administered in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What are the possible adverse effects of ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of IV immunoglobulin in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of epidural clonidine in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of surgical sympathectomy in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of spinal cord stimulation (neuromodulation) in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of magnetic stimulation in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of physical and occupational therapy in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of CBT in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the goal of treatment for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What are therapeutic guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which specialists should be consulted for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which activity modifications are advisable for patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndromes?

Follow-up

How is pain managed in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

When is inpatient care indicated for patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

When is transfer indicated for patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

How is complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) prevented?

What are possible complications of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is the prognosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

What is included in patient education about complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)?

Where can patient resources about complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) be found?