Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Nov 08, 2018
  • Author: J Nicholas Brenton, MD; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the onset of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the risk factors for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the similarities in pathogenesis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS)?

What do the pathophysiological similarities of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest?

What are the pathophysiologic mechanisms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What causes pathogenic differences between acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS)?

How do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Th1/Th2 cytokine concentrations differ in the pathophysiology of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS)?

What is the key event in the pathophysiology of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in North America?

What is the global incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the mortality rates for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the prognosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the racial predilections for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

How does the incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) vary by sex?

How does the incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) vary by age?

Presentation

How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) differentiated from multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Which clinical history is characteristic of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) arise?

What is the role of vaccines in the development of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the frequency of a prodrome in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the earliest signs of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the signs and symptoms of disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-associated optic neuritis?

What is the clinical presentation of fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are unusual clinical presentations of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) diagnosed in infants?

What are the signs and symptoms of childhood, adolescent, or adult multiple sclerosis (MS)?

What causes recurrent acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the characteristic clinical history of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in patients who cannot be weaned from anti-inflammatory therapy?

How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) defined by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG)?

What is the clinical history characteristic of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the common first signs of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the significance of a physical finding of weakness in the evaluation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

How prevalence is ataxia found in the evaluation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the signs and symptoms of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What causes acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Which factors affect the incidence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Which vaccines have been associated with the development of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of genetics in the etiology of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

How are acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) lesions characterized on MRI?

How are acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-associated lesions distinguished from lesions caused by other conditions in the differential diagnosis?

How are acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) lesions differentiated from MS on MRI?

What is the role of imaging in the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of EEG or visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the workup of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Treatment

What is included in the initial treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

When is steroid therapy tapered in the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of IV immune globulin (IVIG) in the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of high-dose corticosteroids in the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are the alternative treatment options for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Which specialist consultations may be needed for the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Which medications in the drug class Anti-inflammatory Agents are used in the treatment of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis?

Follow-up

Following discharge, what further outpatient care is needed for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is included in inpatient care for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

When is transfer to a rehabilitation facility indicated in the treatment of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-prevented?

Which factors may reduce the risk for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the prognosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What are possible complications of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

What is the risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) following a bout of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)?

Where can patient education resources for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) be found?