Torticollis Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 22, 2018
  • Author: Michael C Kruer, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is torticollis?

What is the pathophysiology of congenital torticollis?

What is the pathophysiology of acquired torticollis?

What is the role of basal ganglia circuit abnormalities in the pathophysiology of torticollis?

What causes torticollis?

What causes torticollis in adults?

What causes torticollis in children?

What is the compensatory etiology of torticollis?

What is the central etiology of torticollis?

What is the prevalence of torticollis?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of torticollis?

What is the morbidity associated to torticollis?

What is the prognosis of torticollis?

What is included in patient education about torticollis?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of posttraumatic cervical dystonia in torticollis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of torticollis?

What is the progression of idiopathic cervical dystonia in torticollis?

What is included in the physical exam for torticollis?

What are the head and neck findings characteristic of torticollis?

Which dystonic features suggest torticollis?

Which nondystonic findings are characteristic of torticollis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of congenital torticollis?

DDX

How is acute cervical trauma differentiated from traumatic torticollis?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Torticollis?

Workup

How is torticollis diagnosed?

What is the role of electromyography in the workup of torticollis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for torticollis?

What is included in the conservative management of torticollis?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of torticollis?

What is the role of stereotactic neurosurgery in the treatment of torticollis?

What is the role of sternocleidomastoid release in the treatment of torticollis?

How is unipolar sternocleidomastoid release performed for the treatment of congenital muscular torticollis?

How is bipolar sternocleidomastoid release performed for the treatment of torticollis?

What is the role of selective denervation in the treatment of torticollis?

What is the role of dorsal cord stimulation in the treatment of torticollis?

What are the possible complications of the surgery for torticollis?

What electromagnetic field precautions are necessary after surgery for torticollis?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of patients with torticollis?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Antipsychotics, 2nd Generation are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Anxiolytics, Benzodiazepines are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Antispastic/Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Neuromuscular Blockers, Botulinum Toxins are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiparkinson Agents, Anticholinergics are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants, Other are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-Blockers, Nonselective are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Neurologics, Other are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists are used in the treatment of Torticollis?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinergics are used in the treatment of Torticollis?