Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 22, 2018
  • Author: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

When was the association of vitamin B-12 with neurological diseases first identified?

What is the role of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the pathophysiology of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

What is the structure of vitamin B-12?

What is the recommended daily intake of vitamin B-12?

What is the physiology of absorption of vitamin B-12?

What is the role vitamin B-12 in bone marrow function?

What is the role of vitamin B-12 in the peripheral and central nervous systems?

What is the prevalence of vitamin B-12-deficiency?

What is the morbidity of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

What are the racial predilections of vitamin B-12-related neurological disorders?

Which age groups are at highest risk for vitamin B-12-related neurological disorders?

How does the prevalence of vitamin B-12-related neurological disorders vary among males and females?

Presentation

What is the clinical course of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Which clinical history is characteristic of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Which physical findings are characteristic of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

How do the physical findings of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases vary during the clinical course?

What are the signs and symptoms of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

What are the signs and symptoms of abnormal vitamin B-12 metabolism in infants?

Which intrinsic factors cause inadequate vitamin B-12 absorption?

Which factors increase the risk of inadequate vitamin B-12 absorption?

What is the role of disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism in the etiology of B-12 deficiency?

Which disorders cause an increased vitamin B-12 requirement?

What causes inadequate vitamin B-12 absorption in patients with AIDS?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

How is pernicious anemia diagnosed in individuals with abnormally low vitamin B-12 levels?

What is the role of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HC) measurement in the evaluation of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

What is the role of the Schilling test in the workup of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

What is the role of routine hematologic and chemistry tests in the evaluation of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

What are lab parameters after administration of vitamin B-12?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

What is the role of electrodiagnostic testing in the evaluation of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

What is the role of bone marrow aspiration in the evaluation of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Which histologic spinal cord findings are characteristic of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Which histologic brain findings are characteristic of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Which histologic peripheral nervous system findings are characteristic of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Which nonneurologic histologic findings are characteristic of vitamin B-12 deficiency?

Treatment

What is the focus of treatment for vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Which specialist consultations are recommended for the management of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Which dietary modifications are beneficial in the treatment of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Which activity modifications are beneficial in the treatment of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Medications

Which medications are used in the treatment of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

Which medications in the drug class Dietary supplements are used in the treatment of Vitamin B-12 Associated Neurological Diseases?

Follow-up

What is the role of rehabilitation in the management of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

When is inpatient care indicated in the treatment of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

What is the role of cobalamin in the maintenance treatment of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

How are vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases prevented?

What are potential complications of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?

What is the prognosis of vitamin B-12 associated neurological diseases?