Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 21, 2018
  • Author: Mohini Gurme, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are the primary syndromes of generalized autonomic failure?

What are the symptoms of decreased sympathetic function in autonomic failure?

What are the symptoms of decreased parasympathetic function in autonomic failure?

What are the symptoms of pure autonomic failure (PAF)?

What are the physical findings characteristic of autoimmune autonomic neuropathy?

What are the signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy?

What are the signs and symptoms of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome?

What is the role of lab studies in the diagnosis of autonomic failure syndromes?

What is the role of drug exposure in the etiology of autonomic failure syndromes?

Which tests may be performed to identify systemic disorders causing secondary pandysautonomia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the diagnosis of autonomic failure syndromes?

What are treatment strategies for autonomic failure syndromes?

What are nonpharmacologic treatment options for autonomic dysfunction syndromes?

What causes autonomic failure?

How is pure autonomic failure (PAF) characterized?

How is autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) characterized?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) characterized relative to autonomic failure?

How is postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) characterized?

What is the pathophysiology of autonomic failure syndromes?

What are the principal forms of autonomic failure?

What causes pure autonomic failure?

What causes autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN)?

What causes multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What causes postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)?

What is the prevalence of autonomic failure syndromes in the US?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with autonomic dysfunction syndromes?

What are the racial predilections of autonomic failure syndromes?

How does the prevalence of autonomic failure syndromes vary by sex?

How does the prevalence of autonomic failure syndromes vary by age?

Presentation

Which clinical history is characteristic of autonomic failure syndromes?

What are symptoms of decreased sympathetic function in autonomic failure syndromes?

What are symptoms of decreased parasympathetic function in autonomic failure syndromes?

What are the signs and symptoms of pure autonomic failure (PAF)?

What are the signs and symptoms of autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN)?

What are the signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the signs and symptoms of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)?

What are the physical findings characteristic of pure autonomic failure (PAF)?

What are the physical findings characteristic of autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN)?

What are the physical findings characteristic of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the physical findings characteristic of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the workup of autonomic failure syndromes?

Which medications should be reviewed in the evaluation of autonomic failure syndromes?

Which finding suggests a diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)?

What tests may be performed to identify systemic disorders causing secondary pandysautonomia?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of autonomic failure syndrome?

Which cardiovascular tests may be indicated in the workup of autonomic failure syndrome?

Which additional tests may be needed for the diagnosis of autonomic failure syndromes?

What is the role of lumbar puncture and biopsy in the evaluation of autonomic failure syndromes?

Which histologic findings suggest autonomic failure syndromes?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for autonomic failure syndromes?

What are nonpharmacologic treatment options for autonomic failure syndromes?

What is the role of immunomodulatory therapy for autonomic failure syndromes?

What activity modifications are needed for the treatment of autonomic failure syndromes?

Medications

Which medications are used to manage symptoms of autonomic failure syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Immune globulins are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Cholinergic agents are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Antispasmodic agents are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Bulk agents are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Anticholinesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Gastroprokinetic agents are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Erythropoietins are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Vasopressors are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Beta-adrenergic blocking agents are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha-adrenergic agonists are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Which medications in the drug class Mineralocorticoids are used in the treatment of Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension and other Autonomic Failure Syndromes?

Follow-up

What is included in inpatient care for autonomic failure syndromes?

What is the prognosis of autonomic failure syndromes?