Multiple System Atrophy Questions & Answers

Updated: Oct 17, 2018
  • Author: André Diedrich, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) categorized?

What is Shy-Drager syndrome?

What are the clinical features of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are levels of certainty in the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Where can patient education resources for multiple system atrophy (MSA) be found?

What is the pathophysiology of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the prevalence of multiple system atrophy (MSA) in the US?

What is the global prevalence rates of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

In which patient groups is multiple system atrophy (MSA) most prevalent?

What is the prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of multiple system atrophy (MSA) in patients?

What are the autonomic and urinary symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are indications of severe orthostatic hypotension in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which symptoms are associated with orthostatic hypotension in multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What causes postprandial hypotension in multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the prevalence of supine hypertension in multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the features of parkinsonism in multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the signs and symptoms of cerebellar dysfunction in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

How do the symptoms of multiple system atrophy (MSA) vary based on which system is involved?

DDX

What is the prevalence of comorbid multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson disease?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) differentiated from Parkinson disease?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) differentiated from pure autonomic failure (PAF)?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) differentiated from progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) differentiated from corticobasal ganglionic degeneration?

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) differentiated from cerebrovascular syndromes?

Which disorders should be included in the differential diagnoses of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Multiple System Atrophy?

Workup

How is multiple system atrophy (MSA) diagnosed?

What is the role of autonomic function testing in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the role of sphincter electromyography (EMG) in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

How is incomplete bladder emptying assessed in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the role of detrusor contraction testing in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the role of scintigraphy in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which MRI findings are characteristic of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which Trace (D) values on MRI suggest multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the role of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in the workup of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What are the histologic features of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Treatment

How is the progression of multiple system atrophy (MSA) reversed or halted?

What are the nonpharmacologic treatments for multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the focus of pharmacologic therapy in the treatment of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial for patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which diet modifications are used in the treatment of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

How is orthostatic hypotension managed in multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

How is postprandial hypotension managed in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

How is supine hypertension managed in multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Medications

What is the role of pharmacologic therapy for multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which medications are used to treat movement disorders in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which medications are used to treat orthostatic hypotension in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which medications are used in the treatment of supine hypertension in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA)?

Which medications in the drug class Antihistamines are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Hematopoietic Growth Factors are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Alpha1 Agonists are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Agents for Erectile Dysfunction are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Prokinetic Agents are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Urinary Antispasmodic Agents are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Antiparkinson Agents, Anticholinergics are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?

Which medications in the drug class Antiparkinson Agents, COMT Inhibitors are used in the treatment of Multiple System Atrophy?