Intracranial Hemorrhage Clinical Presentation

Updated: Oct 13, 2017
  • Author: David S Liebeskind, MD, FAAN, FAHA, FANA; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
  • Print
Presentation

History

Onset of symptoms of intracerebral hemorrhage is usually during daytime activity, with progressive (ie, minutes to hours) development of the following:

  • Alteration in level of consciousness (approximately 50%)
  • Nausea and vomiting (approximately 40-50%)
  • Headache (approximately 40%)
  • Seizures [4] (approximately 6-7%)
  • Focal neurological deficits

Lobar hemorrhage due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy may be preceded by prodromal symptoms of focal numbness, tingling, or weakness.

A history of hypertension, trauma, illicit drug abuse, or a bleeding diathesis may be elicited.

Next:

Physical

Clinical manifestations of intracerebral hemorrhage are determined by the size and location of hemorrhage, but may include the following:

  • Hypertension, fever, or cardiac arrhythmias
  • Nuchal rigidity
  • Subhyaloid retinal hemorrhages
  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Anisocoria
  • Focal neurological deficits
    • Putamen - Contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral sensory loss, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, homonymous hemianopia, aphasia, neglect, or apraxia
    • Thalamus - Contralateral sensory loss, contralateral hemiparesis, gaze paresis, homonymous hemianopia, miosis, aphasia, or confusion
    • Lobar - Contralateral hemiparesis or sensory loss, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, homonymous hemianopia, abulia, aphasia, neglect, or apraxia
    • Caudate nucleus - Contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral conjugate gaze paresis, or confusion
    • Brain stem - Quadriparesis, facial weakness, decreased level of consciousness, gaze paresis, ocular bobbing, miosis, or autonomic instability
    • Cerebellum - Ataxia, usually beginning in the trunk, ipsilateral facial weakness, ipsilateral sensory loss, gaze paresis, skew deviation, miosis, or decreased level of consciousness
Previous
Next:

Causes

Possible causes are as follows:

  • Hypertension [5]
  • Aneurysmal rupture
  • Intracranial neoplasm
  • Coagulopathy
  • Hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarct
  • Cerebral venous thrombosis
  • Sympathomimetic drug abuse
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Eclampsia or postpartum vasculopathy
  • Infection
  • Vasculitis
  • Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Trauma
Previous