Intracranial Hemorrhage Questions & Answers

Updated: Dec 07, 2018
  • Author: David S Liebeskind, MD, FAAN, FAHA, FANA; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
  • Print
Questions & Answers

Overview

What is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the pathophysiology of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of chronic hypertension in the pathogenesis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the frequency of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in different sites of the brain?

What is the role of intraventricular hemorrhage in the pathogenesis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in the US?

What is the global incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the mortality rate for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What are the racial predilections for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

How does the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) vary by sex?

How does the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) vary by age?

Presentation

What is the progression of symptoms in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What are the signs and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What are possible causes of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Workup

What is the role of lab studies in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of CT angiography in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

How is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) characterized on a CT scan?

When is CT scanning indicated in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

How is hematoma volume determined in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which CT findings suggest intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of iodinated contrast in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which MRI findings are associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of paramagnetic contrast MRI in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of gradient echo in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

When are permeability techniques used in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the indication for CT angiography in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the indication for MRI angiography in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of conventional catheter angiography in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

When is conventional catheter angiography indicated in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which factors affect the timing of angiography in the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) depend on?

What is the role of ECG in the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which diagnostic procedures may be performed in the evaluation of suspected intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What are the grades of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Treatment

What is the focus of medical therapy for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the initial treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What are the surgical options for the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which specialists should be consulted in the management of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What are the nutritional interventions for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What activity modifications are needed during treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Medications

What is the role of antihypertensive agents in the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of acetaminophen in the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the role of statins in the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which medications in the drug class Antacids are used in the treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes are used in the treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Which medications in the drug class Antipyretics, analgesics are used in the treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Which medications in the drug class Osmotic diuretics are used in the treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Which medications in the drug class Antihypertensive agents are used in the treatment of Intracranial Hemorrhage?

Follow-up

What long-term care is needed following treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is included in the ICU care of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

Which medications are used for the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

When is patient transfer indicated in cases of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

How is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) prevented?

What are the possible complications of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What is the prognosis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)?

What information about intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) should patients receive?