Spinal Cord Hemorrhage Clinical Presentation

Updated: Mar 11, 2014
  • Author: Richard M Zweifler, MD; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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Presentation

History

See the list below:

  • Intramedullary hemorrhage

    • Sudden, severe, localized back pain with or without radicular pain

    • Hemiparesis, paraparesis, or quadriparesis

    • Sensory loss below the lesion

    • Loss of sphincter control

  • Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    • Sudden, severe, localized back pain with or without radicular pain

    • Headache

    • Meningismus

  • Spinal epidural hemorrhage and spinal subdural hemorrhage

    • Sudden, severe, localized back pain with or without radicular pain

    • Hemiparesis, paraparesis, or quadriparesis

    • Sensory loss below lesion

    • Loss of sphincter control

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Physical

See the list below:

  • Intramedullary hemorrhage - Myelopathy (eg, Brown-Séquard syndrome, central cord syndrome, transection syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome) with or without radiculopathy

  • Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    • Myelopathy (eg, Brown-Séquard syndrome, transection syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, cauda equina syndrome) with or without radiculopathy

    • Cranial neuropathies

    • Papilledema

    • May have cutaneous angioma or bruit over the spine

  • Spinal epidural hemorrhage and spinal subdural hemorrhage - Myelopathy (eg, Brown-Séquard syndrome, transection syndrome, conus medullaris syndrome, cauda equina syndrome) with or without radiculopathy

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Next:

Causes

See the list below:

  • Intramedullary hemorrhage

    • Trauma

    • Vascular malformations

    • Bleeding diatheses

    • Anticoagulants

    • Hemorrhage into tumor

    • Venous infarction

    • Spinal radiation

    • Gower's intrasyringal hemorrhage

  • Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    • Spinal angioma

    • Spinal artery aneurysm

    • Intracranial aneurysm

    • Bleeding diatheses

    • Anticoagulants

    • Polyarteritis nodosa

    • Hemorrhage into tumor

    • Trauma

    • Lumbar puncture

  • Spinal epidural hemorrhage

    • Spontaneous

    • Trauma

    • Liver disease with portal hypertension

    • Bleeding diatheses

    • Lumbar puncture

    • Epidural anesthesia

    • Epidural vascular malformation

  • Spinal subdural hemorrhage

    • Bleeding diatheses

    • Anticoagulants

    • Trauma

    • Lumbar puncture

    • Vascular malformations

    • Spinal surgery

    • Spontaneous

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