Haemophilus Meningitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 09, 2018
  • Author: Prateek Lohia, MD, MHA; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the pathophysiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of colonization in the pathophysiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of bacteremia to the pathophysiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of invasiveness in the pathophysiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which host factors are conducive to invasiveness in the pathophysiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the risk factors of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What causes Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the annual incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in unimmunized populations?

What is the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in the US?

What is the global prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which age groups have the highest prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the sexual predilections of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the racial predilections of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How does the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis vary by season?

What is the prognosis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which clinical history findings suggest Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which conditions predispose individuals to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of fulminant Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the meningeal signs of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection?

What are the signs of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the possible complications of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

DDX

What is the role of rash and seizures in narrowing the differential diagnoses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is seasonal variation used to differentiate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis from other forms of meningitis?

Which conditions are included in the differential diagnoses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Haemophilus Meningitis?

Workup

What is the role of lab tests in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which complete blood count findings are characteristic of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of serum glucose measurement in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of serum and urine chemistry studies in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) diagnosed in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of blood cultures in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are indications and contraindications for lumbar puncture in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the significance of opening pressure in lumbar puncture for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is CSF appearance assessed in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF gram staining in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF white blood cell count in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF glucose concentration in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF protein concentration in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF lactate concentration in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF culture in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF analysis in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of bacterial antigen tests in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of PCR in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CSF constituent testing in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of imaging studies in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of CT scanning in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of MRI in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which findings on CT scan are characteristic of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How are subdural effusions diagnosed and managed in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is hydrocephalus diagnosed in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is cerebral infarction diagnosed in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is cerebritis diagnosed in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of EEG in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) testing in the workup of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Treatment

How is Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis treated?

What is the role of empiric antibiotic therapy in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are disadvantages of ampicillin and chloramphenicol in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of corticosteroids in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is included in supportive care for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is increased intracranial volume monitored in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How is Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis prevented?

What is the efficacy of vaccination for the prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is the role of immunization in the prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in developing countries?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which activity modifications are used in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the persistent deficits of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

How are seizures and epilepsy due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis monitored and treated?

What causes hearing loss in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What causes cranial nerve deficits in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What causes ataxia in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What causes hemiparesis in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

What are the cognitive and behavioral disturbances due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Medications

What is the role of medication in the treatment of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Haemophilus Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Anti-Inflammatory Agents are used in the treatment of Haemophilus Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Osmotic diuretics are used in the treatment of Haemophilus Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Haemophilus Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of Haemophilus Meningitis?