Infectious Myositis Follow-up

Updated: Aug 22, 2017
  • Author: Mohammed J Zafar, MD, FAAN, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MD, DM  more...
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Follow-up

Further Inpatient Care

Pyomyositis: Hospitalize for systemic antibiotics.

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Deterrence/Prevention

Prevent trichinosis and cysticercosis by adequately processing pork.

When traveling in endemic areas of Latin America, apply insect repellents such as N -diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) to avoid American trypanosomiasis. Pyrethrin insecticides also may be used to kill insect vectors. Using bed nets to keep away insects is advisable.

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Complications

Complications can include the following:

  • Influenza, echovirus, Legionella, and, rarely, coxsackievirus myositis can be complicated by rhabdomyolysis.
  • Pyomyositis: Life-threatening complications include sepsis and toxic shock syndrome.
  • Gas gangrene usually follows penetrating injuries complicated by clostridial pyomyositis.

In the case of trichinosis, heavy infestation may be fatal because of myocarditis and/or diaphragmatic involvement. Myocarditis can lead to cerebral embolism.

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Prognosis

Prompt administration of antibiotics can result in complete resolution of pyomyositis.

Most patients with trichinosis and myopathic involvement recover after several weeks. Infection may be fatal if severe and involving other organs systems (eg, cardiac, pulmonary, CNS).

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Patient Education

Travelers visiting area of endemic trichinosis should be educated on the hazards of eating raw or undercooked pork.

Educate traveling diabetic patients concerning the need for prompt treatment of cutaneous infections and infected insect bites and to avoid strenuous activity.

The Myositis Association of America serves as a resource for patients and the medical community.

For patient education resources, see the Bites and Stings Center.

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