Infectious Myositis Medication

Updated: Aug 22, 2017
  • Author: Mohammed J Zafar, MD, FAAN, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MD, DM  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Treat the underlying cause of infectious myositis. Use appropriate antibiotics for pyomyositis. Prednisone may be effective to treat HIV-1–associated polymyositis. [8]

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

These agents decrease inflammatory reactions by reversing increased capillary permeability and suppressing PMN activity.

Prednisone (Sterapred)

Can be used for HIV-1–associated polymyositis. Use in combination with thiabendazole for trichinosis.

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Anthelmintic

Class Summary

Parasite biochemical pathways are sufficiently different from those of the human host to allow selective interference by chemotherapeutic agents in relatively small doses.

Thiabendazole (Mintezol)

Treats trichinosis infections; inhibits helminth-specific mitochondrial fumarate reductase; alleviates symptoms of trichinosis during invasive phase. Little value in disease that spreads beyond lumen of intestines; absorption from GI tract is poor.

Mebendazole (Vermox)

May be useful in early stages of trichinosis. Causes worm death by selectively and irreversibly blocking uptake of glucose and other nutrients in susceptible adult intestine where helminths dwell.

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Antibiotics

Class Summary

Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the clinical setting.

Tetracycline (Sumycin)

For treatment of Lyme myositis. Treats gram-positive and gram-negative organisms as well as mycoplasmal, chlamydial, and rickettsial infections. Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding with 30S and possibly 50S ribosomal subunit(s).

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Drug of choice for most neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease; third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum, gram-negative activity; lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms; higher efficacy against resistant organisms. Arrests bacterial growth by binding to penicillin-binding proteins.

Cefazolin (Ancef)

Can be used for treatment of pyomyositis. Semisynthetic cephalosporin effective against: S aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and other strains of streptococci.

Cephalexin (Keflex, Biocef)

Indicated for treatment of infections by S aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains) and streptococci

Vancomycin (Vancocin)

For treatment of severe infections caused by methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam-resistant) staphylococci; and for treatment of staphylococcal infection in individuals allergic to penicillin or cephalosporins.

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