Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Medication

Updated: Mar 07, 2017
  • Author: George Ansstas, MD; Chief Editor: Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD, FACP  more...
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Medication

Medication Summary

Potassium repletion is indicated in hypokalemic patients and normokalemic patients with acidemia.

Magnesium repletion is indicated in all patients to help restore calcium and potassium homeostasis and to prevent alcohol withdrawal. Phosphate repletion is recommended only if severe hypophosphatemia is present. Thiamine repletion is indicated routinely to provide prophylaxis against the development of Wernicke encephalopathy. [13]

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Electrolyte Supplements, Parenteral

Class Summary

These agents are used to replenish electrolyte levels that have been depleted.

Potassium acid phosphate (K-Phos)

Potassium is essential for transmission of nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac muscle, maintenance of intracellular tonicity and skeletal and smooth muscles, and maintenance of normal renal function. Gradual potassium depletion occurs via renal excretion through GI loss or because of low intake.

Magnesium sulfate

Magnesium is a cofactor in enzyme systems involved in neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability.

Potassium phosphate/sodium acid phosphate

Response to IV phosphorus supplementation is highly variable and is associated with hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. Base the rate of infusion and the choice of initial dosage on the severity of the hypophosphatemia and on the presence of symptoms. IV preparations are available as sodium or potassium phosphate.

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Vitamins

Class Summary

Vitamins are essential for normal DNA synthesis and cell function.

Thiamine (Vitamin B-1)

This vitamin is indicated for thiamine deficiency, including Wernicke encephalopathy syndrome.

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