Viral Meningitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jul 17, 2018
  • Author: Cordia Wan, MD; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, MBBS, MD, DM, FAHS, FAANEM  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is viral meningitis?

How long is the clinical course of viral meningitis?

What is the cause of viral meningitis?

What is the role of enteroviruses in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of arboviruses in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of Rubulavirus (mumps virus) in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of herpes viruses in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of LCMV in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of adenovirus in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of morbillivirus in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What is the role of HIV in the etiology of viral meningitis?

What are nonviral causes of aseptic meningitis?

What are the possible complications and long-term sequelae of viral meningitis?

What is the pathogenesis of viral meningitis?

How is viral infection transmitted in viral meningitis?

How prevalent is viral meningitis in the US?

How prevalent is viral meningitis globally?

How does the prevalence of viral meningitis vary by age?

How does the prevalence of viral meningitis vary by sex?

What are long-term neurologic sequelae in children with viral meningitis?

What are possible complications during the acute phase of viral meningitis?

What is the mortality rate for viral meningitis?

What is the prognosis of viral meningitis?

How can viral meningitis be prevented?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of viral meningitis?

What should be the focus of patient history in suspected viral meningitis?

Which physical findings suggest viral meningitis?

Which signs of specific viral infection can aid in diagnosis of viral meningitis?

DDX

What alternative etiologies should be considered in the evaluation of viral meningitis?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of viral meningitis?

What are the differential diagnoses for Viral Meningitis?

Workup

Which lab tests are used in the diagnosis of viral meningitis?

How is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing used to differentiate the cause of viral meningitis?

What is the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in the workup of viral meningitis?

What does a finding of pleocytosis indicate in the workup of viral meningitis?

Which CSF protein levels suggest viral meningitis?

Which CSF glucose levels suggest viral meningitis?

What is the role of CSF latex antigen testing in the workup of viral meningitis?

When are culture, Gram stain, and acid-fast stain tests indicated in the workup of viral meningitis?

Which tests should be performed in the absence of clinical improvement of viral meningitis?

What is the role CT scanning in the diagnosis of viral meningitis?

What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of viral meningitis?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the diagnosis of viral meningitis?

What is the role of intracranial pressure monitored in the management of viral meningitis?

When is operative brain biopsy indicated in the diagnosis of viral meningitis?

Which histologic findings suggest viral meningitis?

What is the Bacterial Meningitis Score and how is it used in the diagnosis of viral meningitis?

Treatment

What are the treatment options for viral meningitis?

When is surgery indicated for viral meningitis?

How is meningoencephalitis caused by viral meningitis treated?

How is septic shock caused by viral meningitis treated in newborns and infants?

When should medications be initiated for the treatment of viral meningitis?

How are seizures caused by viral meningitis treated?

What is the treatment for cerebral edema caused by viral meningitis?

Which antiviral medications are used in the treatment of viral meningitis?

What activity restrictions are included in the treatment of viral meningitis?

When should a patient be transferred for treatment of viral meningitis?

When is viral meningitis treated in an outpatient setting?

What monitoring is needed following treatment of viral meningitis?

What is the role of antipyretics in the treatment of viral meningitis?

Which specialist consultations are needed for the management of viral meningitis?

Medications

Which medication is used in the treatment of viral meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Anticonvulsants are used in the treatment of Viral Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Viral Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Analgesics are used in the treatment of Viral Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiviral Agents are used in the treatment of Viral Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antiemetic Agents are used in the treatment of Viral Meningitis?