Focal Muscular Atrophies Questions & Answers

Updated: Feb 20, 2018
  • Author: Sridharan Ramaratnam, MD, MBBS; Chief Editor: Helmi L Lutsep, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the pathophysiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What are the etiologic factors of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the prevalence of focal muscular atrophy (FMA) in the US?

What is the global prevalence of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the mortality and morbidity associated with focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Presentation

What are the signs and symptoms of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which physical findings are characteristic of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which infectious anterior horn cell diseases cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of injection myopathy in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which noninfectious anterior horn cell diseases cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which focal spinal lesions cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What are miscellaneous causes of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which spinal root lesions cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which brachial and lumbosacral plexus lesions cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which peripheral nerve diseases cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which muscle diseases cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What causes focal muscular atrophy (FMA) confined to bulbar muscles?

What are the most frequent causes of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What causes postpolio progressive muscular atrophy?

What are the signs and symptoms of postpolio progressive muscular atrophy?

What are the diagnostic criteria for progressive postpolio muscular atrophy (PPMA)?

How is postpolio progressive muscular atrophy (PPMA) differentiated from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?

What is monomelic amyotrophy?

How is monomelic amyotrophy diagnosed?

What are spinal muscular atrophies?

What is bulbospinal muscular atrophy?

What is distal spinal muscular atrophy?

Which syndromes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cause focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of postradiation motor neuron disease and plexopathy in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of multifocal motor neuropathy in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of hexosaminidase deficiencies in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of immune-mediated syndromes in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of focal myositis in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of infective myositis in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of inclusion body myositis in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of sarcoid myopathy in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of congenital absence of muscle in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of muscular dystrophies in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of mononeuropathies in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of neuralgic amyotrophy in the etiology of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Focal Muscular Atrophies?

Workup

What is the role of CSF analysis in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which lab tests are performed in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of radiographs in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of spine MRI in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of MRI of the muscles in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of muscle ultrasound in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which disorders should be screened for in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of genetic testing in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of EMG in the diagnosis of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of nerve conduction studies in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of evoked potentials in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

What is the role of biopsy and lumbar puncture in the workup of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Treatment

How is focal muscular atrophy (FMA) treated?

How is postpolio progressive muscular atrophy (PPMA) treated?

How is multifocal motor neuropathy treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Medications

What is the goal of drug treatment for focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?

Which medications in the drug class Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of Focal Muscular Atrophies?

Which medications in the drug class Blood products are used in the treatment of Focal Muscular Atrophies?

Follow-up

What is the prognosis of focal muscular atrophy (FMA)?