Lead Toxicity Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 16, 2020
  • Author: Pranay Kathuria, MD, FACP, FASN, FNKF; Chief Editor: Tarakad S Ramachandran, MBBS, MBA, MPH, FAAN, FACP, FAHA, FRCP, FRCPC, FRS, LRCP, MRCP, MRCS  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is lead toxicity?

How does lead toxicity affect children?

What is the pathophysiology of lead toxicity?

What causes lead toxicity?

Which occupations have the highest risk of lead toxicity?

Which environmental exposures cause lead toxicity?

What are familial factors in lead toxicity?

What is the US prevalence of lead toxicity?

What is the global prevalence of lead toxicity?

Which age groups have the highest risk for lead toxicity?

What are the sexual predilections of lead toxicity?

What are the racial predilections of lead toxicity?

What is the prognosis of lead toxicity?

What is included in the patient education about lead toxicity?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

Which neurologic findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

Which hematologic findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

Which GI findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

Which renal findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

Which cardiovascular findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

How does lead toxicity affect fertility and childbirth?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of lead toxicity in children?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of lead toxicity in adults?

Which physical findings are characteristic of lead toxicity?

What are the possible complications of lead toxicity?

What are the possible neurological complications of lead toxicity?

What are the possible renal complications of lead toxicity?

What are the possible hematological complications of lead toxicity?

What are the possible bone development complications of lead toxicity?

What are the possible complications of lead toxicity on reproduction?

DDX

What are the differential diagnoses for Lead Toxicity?

Workup

How is lead toxicity diagnosed?

What is the role of blood lead level (BLL) tests in the workup of lead toxicity?

According to CDC criteria, which children should be tested for lead toxicity?

What is the role of enzyme tests in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of iron tests in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of renal and liver function tests in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of abdominal radiography in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of long bone radiographs in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of CT scanning and MRI in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of EEG in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of a provocative chelation test in the workup of lead toxicity?

What is the role of neuropsychological testing in the workup of lead toxicity?

Treatment

What is the initial treatment for lead toxicity?

How is lead toxicity treated in children?

How is lead toxicity treated in adults?

What is the role of chelation therapy in the treatment of lead toxicity?

Which chelation agents are used in the treatment of lead toxicity?

How is acute lead poisoning treated?

How is chronic lead nephropathy treated?

What supplemental measures should be taken during chelation therapy for lead toxicity?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of lead toxicity?

What is the focus of primary prevention of lead toxicity?

What is the focus of secondary prevention of lead toxicity?

Which specialist consultations are beneficial to patients with lead toxicity?

What is included in the long-term monitoring of lead toxicity?

Medications

What is the role of medications in the treatment of lead toxicity?

Which medications in the drug class Antidotes are used in the treatment of Lead Toxicity?